More Coronavirus Vaccines and Treatments Move Toward Human Trials – The New York Times

As the coronavirus pandemic spreads at unprecedented rates, invading the lungs of people of all ages, ethnicities and medical histories, companies are ratcheting up their efforts to fight the disease with accelerated schedules for creating new vaccines, and beginning clinical trials for potential treatments.

On Wednesday, Novavax, a Maryland-based biotech company, said it would begin human trials in Australia in mid-May for its vaccine candidate. Novavax is one of more than two dozen companies that have announced promising vaccine programs that are speeding through the early stages of testing unlike ever before.

Also on Wednesday, the stem-cell company Mesoblast said it was starting a 240-patient clinical trial, supported by the National Institutes of Health, that would test whether cells derived from bone marrow could help patients who developed a deadly immune reaction to the coronavirus.

In normal circumstances, development of new vaccines and treatments would take years. But the pharmaceutical industry is racing to compress this timeline with the support of nonprofit organizations, government agencies and regulatory authorities.

Novavax said its vaccine candidate had stimulated a powerful immune response in lab and animal experiments, producing antibodies that could fight off the coronavirus.

While a final product that would be widely available is still a year or more away, the Novavax effort is one of many that is ready to be tested in people.

A vaccine made by the biotech company Moderna is already in a clinical trial, which started March 15. Another one, developed by Inovio Pharmaceuticals, was injected into the first adult volunteers on Monday. The health care giant Johnson & Johnson expects to start clinical trials in September, and has received a nearly $500 million partnership via a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. And experimental vaccines developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston are also waiting for permission from the Food and Drug Administration to begin testing in people.

Were all trying to do something which we have almost no precedents for, which is accelerating a vaccine in the middle of a pandemic, said Dr. Peter Hotez, who is a co-director of the Texas Childrens Hospital Center for Vaccine Development at Baylor College of Medicine.

There is no approved treatment for Covid-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus, and researchers and doctors are testing a host of therapies in a desperate bid to save the lives of people who have few other options. President Trump has aggressively promoted two old malaria drugs, which have shown only limited evidence of working as treatments for the coronavirus. He has pushed for the drugs broader use in patients without the more rigorous clinical trials typically used to evaluate treatments.

But Mesoblast is taking a more standard approach, testing the cell therapy in 240 patients at more than 20 medical centers around the country, which are part of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network, a program created by the N.I.H. Patients will be randomly divided into groups that will receive the therapy, and those that will get a placebo. Researchers said the trial could yield initial results within months.

While many people who are infected with the coronavirus experience mild symptoms, others develop a severe case when their immune systems go into overdrive and begin attacking the bodys organs, which is called a cytokine storm. This can set off something called acute respiratory distress syndrome, which damages the lungs and is often deadly. Several other treatments are also being tried to calm this storm and reset the immune system.

Dr. Silviu Itescu, chief executive of Mesoblast, said the company decided to test its treatment in these Covid-19 patients because its product had shown good results in children who developed a similar deadly immune reaction called acute graft versus host disease, in which the bodys immune cells can attack healthy cells after receiving a bone-marrow transplant. Their treatment is currently being reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in that disease.

We put two and two together and said, We think weve got something that is safe and could have benefit, Dr. Itescu said.

Another stem cell company, Athersys, has said it is also planning a study of stem cells in coronavirus patients with advanced respiratory distress syndrome, but is not as far along.

Nine coronavirus patients at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York have received the Mesoblast treatment on an emergency basis, and doctors there said the initial response was promising. Six patients were removed from ventilation and others were being weaned off or had remained stable a welcome development when most patients who need ventilator support do not survive.

But Dr. Itescu said that even though the treatment was promising, it was still not clear whether it would work, or whether the early promise was merely anecdotal. Although many drugs are being tried outside of a formal study, he said, We do think this is the right way, and a randomized, controlled trial is the only way you are going to know whether an approach works.

Pfizer said on Thursday that it would begin testing an experimental drug, as well as its rheumatoid arthritis treatment Xeljanz, in clinical trials against Covid-19. Xeljanz, also known as tofacitinib, is an anti-inflammatory medicine and could dampen the immune system in patients with the severe respiratory syndrome. But the company warned that research was still in its early stages and that Xeljanz should not currently be used in patients with serious infections.

Still, a vaccine would be the best way to stop further spread of the coronavirus because it enhances the immune systems natural defenses. Of course, many companies are also struggling with ways to partner with manufacturing ventures to produce enough vaccine so that it will be widely available.

More than one million people around the world have already been sickened by the coronavirus. For public health experts and those on the front lines, a vaccine cant come soon enough.

If you could only have a vaccine, just imagine you could walk out your door confident that you were not going to get sick, said Dr. Gregory Glenn, the president for research and development at Novavax. Because of that, everyone is very motivated and working to move things quickly.

Novavax has worked on experimental vaccines for both SARS and MERS, which are closely related to the new coronavirus. The company also has vaccines for the seasonal flu and respiratory syncytial virus, which causes colds, in the last stages of clinical trials.

When Chinese scientists posted the genetic sequence of the new coronavirus in January, researchers at Novavax started working on recombinant technology to make a synthetic version of the virus. Researchers used a baculovirus to carry bits of genetic material from the coronavirus into cells. Baculoviruses typically infect insects, so they cannot replicate and cause illness in humans.

We never use the real virus, Dr. Glenn said. But we can fool the immune system to think its been attacked.

By combining the recombinant vaccine with an adjuvant, or substance that increases immune stimulation, Novavax was able to achieve a high neutralization titer in preclinical tests a measure of the protective antibodies that can block the virus.

The company hopes to see a similar effect after giving more than 130 healthy adults two doses of the vaccine. Results of the trial, which will be conducted in Australia, are expected around July.

Moderna and Inovio are pioneering a different approach.

Moderna uses RNA technology, while Inovio has developed DNA technology to package the genetic code of coronavirus spike proteins, which make up the crown around the virus and help it latch on to cells. This approach has the advantage of being able to move to trials faster than vaccines that require the production of viral proteins or a weakened version of the actual virus to induce an immune response. But the technology is still unproven. There are no approved RNA or DNA vaccines for any disease.

Dr. Hotezs team and Johnson & Johnson, on the other hand, are relying on technology that is more similar to Novavaxs approach because it has been used successfully to create other vaccines in the past, including one for Ebola that has been registered in Europe and is used in the recent epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Some countries already have the manufacturing capabilities that will be needed to scale up vaccine production, and that will keep costs low if everything goes well.

Its not very sexy, but its a reliable approach, Dr. Hotez said. We know that it works.

For now, the first stage of clinical trials for each potential coronavirus vaccine must focus on how safe or toxic the vaccine may be at different dose levels. Researchers will collect the medical histories of volunteers participating in the trials and track their antibody levels, liver enzymes and other indicators of emerging side effects.

One concern is that the vaccines may inadvertently cause a phenomenon known as disease enhancement, in which vaccinated people develop more severe inflammation and disease than those who have never been vaccinated. Studies of early SARS and MERS vaccines noted this troublesome complication in some animal models.

If everything looks good and the vaccine appears to be safe, then well go on to trials with much bigger numbers and look at the vaccine efficacy, said Dr. John Ervin, who is leading the Inovio clinical trial in Kansas City, Mo.

In parallel, companies are planning to continue further animal testing, as well as investing in manufacturing capacity both in the United States and abroad. They will need millions of doses for additional clinical trials and even more if a vaccine eventually goes to market.

Companies also have to be prepared for the possibility that some candidates will fizzle out or that demand for a vaccine will decrease by the time one is ready for widespread use. But industry experts are not waiting for this to happen.

The virus is racing through crowded urban areas and slums in certain countries, Dr. Hotez said. How do you do social distancing in those places? You dont.

We are building out a road map for how we work as a country for the next two or three years, he continued. Thats roughly the time frame that we saw for the 1918 flu pandemic and thats probably likely for Covid-19.

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More Coronavirus Vaccines and Treatments Move Toward Human Trials - The New York Times

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Mount Sinai Leading the Way in Innovative Stem Cell Therapy for COVID-19 Patients – Newswise

Newswise (New York, NY April 9, 2020) Mount Sinai Health System is the first in the country to use an innovative allogeneic stem cell therapy in COVID-19 patients and will play a central role in developing and conducting a rigorous clinical trial for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, the breathing illness that afflicts people who have severe cases of COVID-19.

The therapy, known as remestemcel-L, has previously been tested in bone marrow transplant patients, who can experience an overactive immune response similar to that seen in severe cases of COVID-19.

Mount Sinai began administering the therapy, known as remestemcel-L, to patients in late March under the Food and Drug Administrations compassionate use program, which allows patients with an immediately life-threatening condition to gain access to an investigational therapy. Ten patients with moderate to severe cases of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), most of whom were on ventilators, were given the therapy and doctors saw encouraging results.

We are encouraged by what we have seen so far and look forward to participating in the randomized controlled trial starting soon that would better indicate whether this is an effective therapy for patients in severe respiratory distress from COVID-19, said Keren Osman, MD, Medical Director of the Cellular Therapy Service in the Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation Program at The Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai and Associate Professor of Medicine (Hematology and Medical Oncology) at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Dr. Osman oversaw the treatment of the first Mount Sinai patients with this innovative therapy.

Under the leadership of Annetine Gelijns, PhD, Alan Moskowitz, MD, and Emilia Bagiella, PhD, of Mount Sinais Institute of Transformative Clinical Trials, Mount Sinai will serve as the clinical and data coordinating center for a randomized clinical trial evaluating the therapeutic benefit and safety of this stem cell therapy in 240 patients with COVID-related ARDS in the United States and Canada. The trial will be conducted as a public-private partnership between the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network, which was established as a flexible clinical trials platform by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and Mesoblast, the manufacturer of the cells.

The coronavirus pandemic has caused exponential increases of people suffering with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation with many dying, said Dr. Gelijns, who is also the Edmond A. Guggenheim Professor of Health Policy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. We have designed a clinical trial that will expeditiously determine whether the stem cell therapy will offer a life-saving therapy for a group of patients with a dismal prognosis.

We are interested to study the potential of this anti-inflammatory cell therapy to make an impact on the high mortality of lung complications in COVID-19 patients, said CSTN Chairman A. Marc Gillinov, MD. This randomized controlled trial is in line with our mandate to rigorously evaluate novel therapies for public health imperatives.

The therapy consists of mesenchymal stem cells. These cells are found in bone marrow and serve many functions including aiding tissue repair and suppressing inflammation. The therapy was previously tested in a phase 3 trial in children who had an often-fatal inflammatory condition called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that can occur after bone marrow transplants.

The inflammation that occurs in GVHD is the result of a cytokine storm, which activates immune cells that attack healthy tissue. A similar cytokine storm that causes damage to the lungs and other organs appears to be taking place in COVID-19 patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, said John Levine, MD, Professor of Medicine (Hematology and Medical Oncology), and Pediatrics, at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, who helped implement the compassionate use of the drug at Mount Sinai.

These stem cells have shown excellent response rates in severe graft-versus-host disease in children, said Dr. Levine, who is also the co-director of the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC). Mesenchymal stem cells have a natural property that dampens excessive immune responses.

Several people were instrumental in quickly and efficiently working through the complex application process for each patient to gain compassionate use of the therapy. Three key players involved were Stacey-Ann Brown, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Medicine (Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine) at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Tiffany Drummond, Assistant Director of Regulatory Affairs at The Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai; and Camelia Iancu-Rubin, PhD, Director of the Cellular Therapy Laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

About the Mount Sinai Health System

The Mount Sinai Health System is New York City's largest academic medical system, encompassing eight hospitals, a leading medical school, and a vast network of ambulatory practices throughout the greater New York region. Mount Sinai is a national and international source of unrivaled education, translational research and discovery, and collaborative clinical leadership ensuring that we deliver the highest quality carefrom prevention to treatment of the most serious and complex human diseases. The Health System includes more than 7,200 physicians and features a robust and continually expanding network of multispecialty services, including more than 400 ambulatory practice locations throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester, and Long Island. The Mount Sinai Hospital is ranked No. 14 onU.S. News & World Report's"Honor Roll" of the Top 20 Best Hospitals in the country and the Icahn School of Medicine as one of the Top 20 Best Medical Schools in country. Mount Sinai Health System hospitals are consistently ranked regionally by specialty and our physicians in the top 1% of all physicians nationally byU.S. News & World Report.

For more information, visithttps://www.mountsinai.orgor find Mount Sinai onFacebook,TwitterandYouTube.

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Canadian Company STEMCELL Technologies Is an Essential Industry Partner for COVID-19 Research and Vaccine Development – Business Wire

VANCOUVER, British Columbia--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Products made by Vancouvers STEMCELL Technologies are now being used in over 30 COVID-19 studies worldwide. These studies are focusing on areas ranging from diagnostics and treatments to vaccine development and future prevention. STEMCELL is playing a crucial role in COVID-19 research by providing cutting-edge laboratory tools and reagents as well as through close collaborations with scientists. This will ultimately accelerate the pace of discovery and hopefully lead to a rapid resolution to the global pandemic.

At STEMCELL, we have a team of world-class scientists who have dedicated their careers to developing superior cell culture and cell isolation systems required to study devastating diseases, said Dr. Allen Eaves, STEMCELLs Founder, President, and CEO. It is always incredibly rewarding to see their hard work and expertise put to use. Every day were learning about new ways our customers are using our products to research solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic, and were actively working to support these researchers in any way we can.

STEMCELL is the global industry expert in developing systems for culturing human organoids, which are three-dimensional clusters of cells that closely resemble the biology of human organs. STEMCELL has partnered with an international team including Dr. Josef Penninger at the University of British Columbia, along with Nuria Montserrat in Spain, Drs. Haibo Zhang and Art Slutsky from Toronto, and Ali Mirazimis infectious biology team in Sweden. The group used STEMCELLs organoid systems in a study that examined how SARS-CoV-2 infects patients. Their findings, recently published in the top scientific journal Cell, provide insight into a potential treatment capable of stopping early infection of the novel coronavirus.

Human organoids enable us to better understand the pathology of this disease and to rapidly reach a therapeutic breakthrough. This work stems from an amazing collaboration among academic researchers and companies, including Dr. Ryan Conders gastrointestinal group at STEMCELL Technologies, who have all been working tirelessly day and night for weeks, said Dr. Penninger.

Life science researchers and clinical labs also depend on STEMCELLs specialized cell isolation tools and instruments to extract the white blood cells responsible for immune responses from blood samples. Dr. James Crowe at the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center in Nashville, Tennessee is using a custom version of STEMCELLs EasySep system to isolate specific immune cells from the blood of COVID-19 survivors. Their goal is to rapidly develop antibody treatments and vaccines. This research group has used the same system to identify potential treatments for other viruses, including Ebola, chikungunya, HIV, dengue, norovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus.

STEMCELL listened to us when we came to them asking for custom tools to isolate the specific immune cells were working with from COVID-19 patients, said Dr. Crowe. We were able to integrate the new products and protocols into our research. In turn, we hand information about these products back to STEMCELL so that they can make it available to other labs. Its been a productive collaboration.

STEMCELL recently reported that researchers at Chinas Centre for Disease Control (CDC) successfully used STEMCELLs lung cell culture product, PneumaCultTM, to grow human lung airway cells and quickly obtain the viruss gene sequence, drastically shortening the path to vaccine development. Additionally, an international team including long-time STEMCELL collaborator Dr. Franois Jean at the University of British Columbia, an expert in antiviral drug discovery and emerging human viruses, is using STEMCELLs lung tissue culture system in a recently-funded study to develop and evaluate candidate therapeutics for COVID-19.

Solving medical challenges requires experts in science and medicine to work together with efficiency and accuracy, says Dr. Eaves. STEMCELL is proud to be a crucial component of this network by providing innovative tools, services, and expertise needed by our colleagues in research labs and clinical settings globally.

In addition to supporting rapid and groundbreaking developments for COVID-19 research, STEMCELLs products have been used successfully to study many other devastating viruses. This includes the use of PneumaCult to study respiratory viruses such as various coronaviruses, parvovirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza. Scientists have also successfully modeled microcephaly caused by Zika virus and cytomegalovirus using STEMCELLs BrainPhys and other products for neuroscience research. Similarly, STEMCELLs IntestiCult was used to study viruses targeting the intestinal system, including enteric coronavirus and norovirus. Finally, STEMCELLs EasySep reagents and RoboSep instrument have been central to studies of the immune response to viruses including HIV, Ebola, and dengue viruses.

About STEMCELL Technologies

STEMCELL Technologies is Canadas largest biotechnology company, with over 1,500 employees and year-on-year growth of approximately 20% for the last 26 years. Based in Vancouver, STEMCELL supports life sciences research around the world with more than 2,500 specialized reagents, tools, and services. STEMCELL offers high-quality cell culture media, cell separation technologies, instruments, accessory products, and educational resources that are used by scientists advancing the stem cell, immunology, cancer, regenerative medicine, microbiology, and cellular therapy fields. Find more information at http://www.stemcell.com.

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Hackensack Meridian Health Studying the Blood of COVID-19 Survivors – P&T Community

NUTLEY, N.J., April 10, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Researchers and clinical experts at Hackensack Meridian Health, New Jersey's largest and most comprehensive health network, are looking into the blood of COVID-19 survivors, as a potential treatment for current COVID-19 patients.

The work will scrutinize the antibodies within the serum of the surviving patients, in an attempt to discover more about the disease, and perhaps develop new ways to fight it.

"I'm so proud of our robust and innovative response to this unprecedented global challenge, from our front-line care teams to our support staff, and our exceptional researchers," said Robert C. Garrett, FACHE, chief executive officer of Hackensack Meridian Health. "Our scientists have been at the forefront of the latest innovations, including developing our own test and taking part in clinical trials of antiviral drugs. Now they're taking a leadership role in this advanced antibody work, which could prove to be a breakthrough."

"It really is a race against time," said Michele Donato, M.D., FACP, CPE, chief of stem cell transplantation and cellular therapy at John Theurer Cancer Center, part of Hackensack University Medical Center, and who is leading the potential treatment part of the work. "People are getting sick right now, and we are working night and day to save as many lives as possible."

Convalescent plasma treatments have previously been used to fight other viral outbreaks, including those of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by a virus that's a cousin to the one responsible for COVID-19, and which sickened thousands in 2002-2003.

At Hackensack Meridian Health, the researchers will first seek a small blood sample from those recovered or recovering patients who volunteer for the study, with the goal of finding those who developed the highest levels of targeted antibodies in response to the virus.

Those patients with the highest level of antibodies will be asked to return to provide a larger plasma donation, which may be utilized to infuse into very sick COVID-19 patients.

Taking part in this work will be experts from Hackensack Meridian John Theurer Cancer Center including Donato, who are experts in stem cell transplantation and cellular therapy, as well as scientists from Hackensack Meridian Health Center for Discovery and Innovation (CDI), who have developed a high-titer test to assess the presence and levels of the antibodies. The CDI also previously developed a diagnostic test for detecting the virus which has been used to diagnose more than a thousand patients so far in the Hackensack Meridian Heath network.

"This is applied science in 'real-time,' as this pandemic continues to spread," said David S. Perlin, Ph.D., the chief scientific officer and senior vice president of the CDI. "Our scientists at the CDI are responding to needs, and we're hoping to save lives."

"Research at Hackensack Meridian Health is more important than ever, and we are hopeful it will give us the edge against this pandemic," said Ihor Sawczuk, M.D., FACS, president of Hackensack MeridianHealth'sNorthern Market, and the chief research officer of the network.

The patients sought for the studies will be between the ages of 18 and 60, and have a prior laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. They must also be at least 14 days without symptoms, according to the guidelines.

Potential donors can fill out an online form available here for the initial screening.

ABOUTHACKENSACKMERIDIAN HEALTH

Hackensack Meridian Health is a leading not-for-profit health care organization that is the largest, most comprehensive and truly integrated health care network in New Jersey, offering a complete range of medical services, innovative research and life-enhancing care.

Hackensack Meridian Health comprises 17 hospitals from Bergen to Ocean counties, which includes three academic medical centers Hackensack University Medical Center in Hackensack, Jersey Shore University Medical Center in Neptune, JFK Medical Center in Edison; two children's hospitals - Joseph M. Sanzari Children's Hospital in Hackensack, K. Hovnanian Children's Hospital in Neptune; nine community hospitals Bayshore Medical Center in Holmdel, Mountainside Medical Center in Montclair, Ocean Medical Center in Brick, Palisades Medical Center in North Bergen, Pascack Valley Medical Center in Westwood, Raritan Bay Medical Center in Old Bridge, Raritan Bay Medical Center in Perth Amboy, Riverview Medical Center in Red Bank, and Southern Ocean Medical Center in Manahawkin; a behavioral health hospital Carrier Clinic in Belle Mead; and two rehabilitation hospitals - JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute in Edison and Shore Rehabilitation Institute in Brick.

Additionally, the network has more than 500 patient care locations throughout the state which include ambulatory care centers, surgery centers, home health services, long-term care and assisted living communities, ambulance services, lifesaving air medical transportation, fitness and wellness centers, rehabilitation centers, urgent care centers and physician practice locations. Hackensack Meridian Health has more than 34,100 team members, and 6,500 physicians and is a distinguished leader in health care philanthropy, committed to the health and well-being of the communities it serves.

The network's notable distinctions include having four hospitals among the top 10 in New Jersey by U.S. News and World Report. Other honors include consistently achieving Magnet recognition for nursing excellence from the American Nurses Credentialing Center and being named to Becker's Healthcare's "150 Top Places to Work in Healthcare/2019" list.

The Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University, the first private medical school in New Jersey in more than 50 years, welcomed its first class of students in 2018 to its On3 campus in Nutley and Clifton. Additionally, the network partnered with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to find more cures for cancer faster while ensuring that patients have access to the highest quality, most individualized cancer care when and where they need it.

Hackensack Meridian Health is a member of AllSpire Health Partners, an interstate consortium of leading health systems, to focus on the sharing of best practices in clinical care and achieving efficiencies.

For additional information, please visit http://www.HackensackMeridianHealth.org.

About the Center for Discovery and Innovation

The Center for Discovery and Innovation, a newly established member of Hackensack Meridian Health, seeks to translate current innovations in science to improve clinical outcomes for patients with cancer, infectious diseases and other life-threatening and disabling conditions. The CDI, housed in a fully renovated state-of-the-art facility, offers world-class researchers a support infrastructure and culture of discovery that promotes science innovation and rapid translation to the clinic.

About John Theurer Cancer Center at Hackensack University Medical Center

John Theurer Cancer Center at Hackensack University Medical Center is New Jersey's largest and most comprehensive center dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, management, research, screenings, and preventive care as well as survivorship of patients with all types of cancers. The 14 specialized divisions covering the complete spectrum of cancer care have developed a close-knit team of medical, research, nursing, and support staff with specialized expertise that translates into more advanced, focused care for all patients. Each year, more people in the New Jersey/New York metropolitan area turn to John Theurer Cancer Center for cancer care than to any other facility in New Jersey.John Theurer Cancer Center is amember of the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center Consortium,one of just 16 NCI-approved cancer research consortiabased at the nation's most prestigious institutions. Housed within a 775-bed not-for-profit teaching, tertiary care, and research hospital, John Theurer Cancer Center provides state-of-the-art technological advances, compassionate care, research innovations, medical expertise, and a full range of aftercare services that distinguish John Theurer Cancer Center from other facilities.For additional information, please visitwww.jtcancercenter.org.

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What’s the best COVID-19 treatment? Science *real* science will tell us – Patheos

Erlenmeyer Laboratory Chemistry Science Flasks, from http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Erlenmeyer-Laboratory-Chemistry-Science-Flasks-606611

Is hydroxychloroquinine an effective treatment for COVID-19*?

Are ventilators effective in treating patients as the disease worsens?

Why are African-Americans dying in greater numbers?

Lets talk science.

How many times have you heard the phrase the science is settled? Thats been repeated endlessly with respect to climate change, but, in fact, the reality of science is that it is never settled.

Many years ago, as a student of history, I had a class in historiography in which the professor aimed to provide readings that would broaden the students understanding in a wider way than merely instruction in research methods. We read about Cargo Cults in a book called Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches, and we read about paradigm shifts in the classic The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas Kuhn. (Yes, reader, when I read the book, I believed the word was pronounced para-dig-m instead of para-dime.) Heres how Wikipedia summarizes his argument:

Kuhn challenged the then prevailing view of progress in science in which scientific progress was viewed as development-by-accumulation of accepted facts and theories. Kuhn argued for an episodic model in which periods of conceptual continuity where there is cumulative progress, which Kuhn referred to as periods of normal science, were interrupted by periods of revolutionary science. The discovery of anomalies during revolutions in science leads to new paradigms. New paradigms then ask new questions of old data, move beyond the mere puzzle-solving of the previous paradigm, change the rules of the game and the map directing new research.

And permit me to cite two examples from medical research outside the coronavirus.

First, stem cell transplants for breast cancer.

Back, well, when the internet was in its infancy and one learned about news through actual newspapers, I recall reading about stem cell transplants, then watching the process play out for a relative of a friend, who was diagnosed with breast cancer and, as it advanced, treated with a stem cell transplant for those who dont recall, this was a method in which the patients stem cells were removed, then the patient received extremely high doses of chemotherapy, to completely kill the cancer but, as a consequence, destroying the immune system, and then the stem cells were re-infused. The risks of the procedure were great but it was believed that the reward was greater but, as it happened, my friends relative died. Now, doctors were so convinced of the efficacy of the treatment that insurance companies were pressured to cover it despite its experimental nature, and that the usual protocols of randomized controlled trials (RCT) were not followed because, after all, to deny half a test population a lifesaving treatment would consign them unfairly to death.

You may know the end of the story: when a RCT was finally conducted in 2000, it found that this procedure actually offered patients no benefit compared to conventional treatment. (You can read the whole story at Health Affairs.)

Second, research into Alzheimers Disease, and, more specifically, the amyloid hypothesis, that is, the theory that sticky brain plaques cause Alzheimers and that removing or preventing those plaques will cure or prevent the disease.

This theory became entrenched in the research for Alzheimers; a video at STAT describes the manner in which researchers moved from one failed drug trial to the next based on this theory. But heres an editorial at that publication from April of 2019:

If insanity is doing the same thing over and over again but expecting different results, then the last decade or so of Alzheimers disease drug development has been insane. Three carefully designed, well-executed, and fully resourced trials targeting amyloid protein in the brain as the cause of Alzheimers disease have failed. Its long past time to take a new approach to this mind-robbing disease. . . .

A comfortable partnership developed between believers in the amyloid hypothesis, funding agencies, and drug companies, so that only programs supporting this hypothesis were funded. Even today, the largest amount of NIH funding for Alzheimers disease research goes to amyloid-0related research.

Following the advice of their academic advisers most of them members of the amyloid cabal drug companies dutifully developed drugs to target amyloid with the goal of treating Alzheimers disease. Thy believed it was only a matter of time before the Alzheimers problem was solved. . . .

Other ideas were starved of funding or greeted with polite rolling of the eyes. . . .

This is a good place to talk about groupthink, the psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity results in irrational or dysfunctional decision-making. Groupthink describes the funding and execution of Alzheimers disease research and drug development over the last 30 years. Once amyloid became the target, all other ideas were abandoned, shunned, even ridiculed. Although I believe that this dark period is behind us, weve wasted three decades and billions of dollars.

Trump is promoting the possible use of hydroxychloroquinine as a treatment for the disease. Is he doing so recklessly? Are naysayers naysaying for scientific grounds or anti-Trump grounds?

One of the key issues is that there have not yet been RCTs for this treatment. In a disease such as COVID-19, where the large majority of people do recover, one way or the other, touting one treatment or another as a breakthrough without following a protocol of a control group cannot produce valid results, but here the French doctor who has been promoting this treatment, in combination with azithromycin, Didier Raoult, has been doing exactly this, by claiming that his treatment is so clearly successful that it would unethical to deny it to his patients. (See this Forbes article for a distillation of the debate, and a Q&A at The Hospitalist for some further scholarly comments.)

But hydroxychloroquinine is not the only aspect of the pandemic where conventional wisdom and science are at odds.

Second, ventilators: heres a report from STAT on April 8th: With ventilators running out, doctors say the machines are overused for Covid-19.

Even as hospitals and governors raise the alarm about a shortage of ventilators, some critical care physicians are questioning the widespread use of the breathing machines for Covid-19 patients, saying that large numbers of patients could instead be treated with less intensive respiratory support.

If the iconoclasts are right, putting coronavirus patients on ventilators could be of little benefit to many and even harmful to some.

Whats driving this reassessment is a baffling observation about Covid-19: Many patients have blood oxygen levels so low they should be dead. But theyre not gasping for air, their hearts arent racing, and their brains show no signs of blinking off from lack of oxygen.

That is making critical care physicians suspect that blood levels of oxygen, which for decades have driven decisions about breathing support for patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, might be misleading them about how to care for those with Covid-19. In particular, more and more are concerned about the use of intubation and mechanical ventilators. They argue that more patients could receive simpler, noninvasive respiratory support, such as the breathing masks used in sleep apnea, at least to start with and maybe for the duration of the illness.

This is not just a matter of trying to save money or resources by minimizing the use of ventilators. As the article reports, ventilation can actually cause harm: Older patients who do survive risk permanent cognitive and respiratory damage from being on heavy sedation for many days if not weeks and from the intubation.

And patients with COVID-19 who are placed on ventilators have an extremely high fatality rate: in one instance, 30 of 37 patients placed on mechanical ventilation died within a month. In another, only one out of seven patients older than 70, placed on a ventilator, survived.

Whats more,

one of the most severe consequences of Covid-19 suggests another reason the ventilators arent more beneficial. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, which results from immune cells ravaging the lungs and kills many Covid-19 patients, the air sacs of the lungs become filled with a gummy yellow fluid. That limits oxygen transfer from the lungs to the blood even when a machine pumps in oxygen, [Harvard Medical School physician Dr. Muriel] Gillick said.

All of which leads to the question: should RCTs be conducted for the treatment of using ventilators for COVID-19, rather than doctors assuming that this is an effective treatment because it is used for other respiratory diseases?

And, finally, heres a highly speculative observation coming out of a Facebook group:-thalassaemia (or beta-thalassaemia, or thalassemia without the ae) is a blood disorder which is connected to anemia. (Heres a lay description of the disorder.) This disorder is inherited, and the mild form causes no health issues so that carriers will pass on the disorder; it is common in the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the same manner as sickle-cell anemia is found in Africa and among individuals with African ancestry; in both cases, the mild form of the trait conferred protection against malaria.

What does this have to do with anything? Thalassaemia is prevalent in the Po valley, which is the region in northern Italy which is being hardest hit by COVID-19. At the same time, within the US, blacks (that is, people of African descent) are disproportionately likely to die of COVID-19. Within the US, this is being explained as due to socioeconomic disparities in that population and there clearly are significant disparities but is the paradigm that all health disparities are caused by socioeconomic disparities because race is only a social construct preventing researchers from identifying physiological differences, and, as a result, limiting scientists understanding of how to treat the disease?

In any event, the more I read, the stronger I feel that the answer to the search for a treatment for coronavirus will hinge on our scientists ability to look beyond groupthink and get at the basic science that underlies the disease, whatever that may be.

*Look, Id love to call it the Wuhan Virus, the Chinese Flu, or any other such phrase that communicates the role that China played in causing/exacerbating the pandemic, and I quite like the backronym, or alternative acronym, China-originated virus in December 19 (rather than COronaVIrus Disesase), but, lets face it, we need a common nomenclature.

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What's the best COVID-19 treatment? Science *real* science will tell us - Patheos

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Stem Cell Therapy Market Size 2020 | Top Companies, Growth Overview, Technology, Latest Trends and Forecast 2026 – Curious Desk

New Jersey, United States:The new report has been added by Verified Market Research to provide a detailed overview of the Stem Cell Therapy Market. The study will help to better understand the Stem Cell Therapy industry competitors, the sales channel, Stem Cell Therapy growth potential, potentially disruptive trends, Stem Cell Therapy industry product innovations and the value / volume of size market (regional / national level, Stem Cell Therapy- Industrial segments), market share of the best actors / products.

Information has been added to the report to provide a realistic view of the industry based on data from Stem Cell Therapy manufacturers, i.e. H. Shipping, price, sales, gross profit, business distribution, etc., SWOT analysis, consumer preference, current developments and trends, drivers and limiting factors, company profile, investment opportunities, analysis of the demand gap, market size value / volume, services and products, Porters five models , socio-economic factors, official regulations in the Stem Cell Therapy branch. Market participants can use the report to take a look at the future of the Stem Cell Therapy market and make significant changes to their operating style and marketing tactics in order to achieve sustainable growth.

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The report examines the competitive environment scenario observed with key players in Stem Cell Therapy sales, the profile of their business, their earnings, their sales, their business tactics, and the forecasting situations of the Stem Cell Therapy sales industry. According to studies, the Stem Cell Therapy sales market is very competitive and diverse due to global and local suppliers.

The Stem Cell Therapy Sales Market Report mainly contains the following Manufacturers:

Market Competition

The competitive landscape of the Stem Cell Therapy market is examined in detail in the report, with a focus on the latest developments, the future plans of the main players and the most important growth strategies that they have adopted. The analysts who compiled the report have created a portrait of almost all of the major players in the Stem Cell Therapy market, highlighting their key commercial aspects such as production, areas of activity and product portfolio. All companies analyzed in the report are examined on the basis of important factors such as market share, market growth, company size, production, sales and earnings.

Report Highlights

Assessment of sales channels

innovation trends

sustainability strategies

Niche market trends

Market entry analysis

market size and forecast

The geographic department provides data that give you an overview of the turnover of companies and sales figures for the growth activity Stem Cell Therapy for electrical meters. Here are the strengths of the geographic divisions: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Russia and Italy and more), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia) and more ), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia), the Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) and ROW.

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Table of Content

1 Introduction of Stem Cell Therapy Market1.1 Overview of the Market1.2 Scope of Report1.3 Assumptions

2 Executive Summary

3 Research Methodology 3.1 Data Mining3.2 Validation3.3 Primary Interviews3.4 List of Data Sources

4 Stem Cell Therapy Market Outlook4.1 Overview4.2 Market Dynamics4.2.1 Drivers4.2.2 Restraints4.2.3 Opportunities4.3 Porters Five Force Model4.4 Value Chain Analysis

5 Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Deployment Model5.1 Overview

6 Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Solution6.1 Overview

7 Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Vertical7.1 Overview

8 Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Geography8.1 Overview8.2 North America8.2.1 U.S.8.2.2 Canada8.2.3 Mexico8.3 Europe8.3.1 Germany8.3.2 U.K.8.3.3 France8.3.4 Rest of Europe8.4 Asia Pacific8.4.1 China8.4.2 Japan8.4.3 India8.4.4 Rest of Asia Pacific8.5 Rest of the World8.5.1 Latin America8.5.2 Middle East

9 Stem Cell Therapy Market Competitive Landscape9.1 Overview9.2 Company Market Ranking9.3 Key Development Strategies

10 Company Profiles10.1.1 Overview10.1.2 Financial Performance10.1.3 Product Outlook10.1.4 Key Developments

11 Appendix11.1 Related Research

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Stem Cell Therapy Market Size 2020 | Top Companies, Growth Overview, Technology, Latest Trends and Forecast 2026 - Curious Desk

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COVID-19 Impact on Stem Cell Media Market Identify Which Types of Companies Could Potentially Benefit or Loose out From the Impact of COVID-19 -…

Due to the pandemic, we have included a special section on the Impact of COVID 19 on the Stem Cell Media Market which would mention How the Covid-19 is Affecting the Stem Cell Media Industry, Market Trends and Potential Opportunities in the COVID-19 Landscape, Covid-19 Impact on Key Regions and Proposal for Stem Cell Media Players to Combat Covid-19 Impact.

The Global Stem Cell Media Market has been garnering remarkable momentum in the recent years. The steadily escalating demand due to improving purchasing power is projected to bode well for the global market. QY Researchs latest publication, Titled [Stem Cell Media Market Research Report 2020], offers an insightful take on the drivers and restraints present in the market. It assesses the historical data pertaining to the global Stem Cell Media market and compares it to the current market trends to give the readers a detailed analysis of the trajectory of the market. A team subject-matter experts have provided the readers a qualitative and quantitative data about the market and the various elements associated with it.

Global Stem Cell Media Market is valued at USD XX million in 2020 and is projected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of XX% during the period 2020 to 2026.

Top Key Players of the Global Stem Cell Media Market:Thermo Fisher, STEMCELL Technologies, Merck Millipore, Lonza, GE Healthcare, Miltenyi Biotec, Corning, CellGenix, Takara, PromoCell, HiMedia

>>Get Sample Copy of the Report to understand the structure of the complete report (Including Full TOC, Table & Figures):https://www.qyresearch.com/sample-form/form/1637298/global-stem-cell-media-market

The Essential Content Covered in the Global Stem Cell Media Market Report:Top Key Company Profiles.Main Business and Rival InformationSWOT Analysis and PESTEL AnalysisProduction, Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross MarginMarket Size And Growth RateCompany Market Share

Global Stem Cell Media Market Segmentation By Product:Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Culture, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture, Others

Global Stem Cell Media Market Segmentation By Application:Scientific Research, Industrial Production

In terms of region, this research report covers almost all the major regions across the globe such as North America, Europe, South America, the Middle East, and Africa and the Asia Pacific. Europe and North America regions are anticipated to show an upward growth in the years to come. While Stem Cell Media Market in Asia Pacific regions is likely to show remarkable growth during the forecasted period. Cutting edge technology and innovations are the most important traits of the North America region and thats the reason most of the time the US dominates the global markets.Stem Cell Media Market in South, America region is also expected to grow in near future.

Key questions answered in the report*What will be the market size in terms of value and volume in the next five years?*Which segment is currently leading the market?*In which region will the market find its highest growth?*Which players will take the lead in the market?*What are the key drivers and restraints of the markets growth?

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Table of Content

1 Stem Cell Media Market Overview1.1 Stem Cell Media Product Overview1.2 Stem Cell Media Market Segment by Type1.2.1 Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture1.2.2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Culture1.2.3 Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture1.2.4 Others1.3 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size by Type (2015-2026)1.3.1 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size Overview by Type (2015-2026)1.3.2 Global Stem Cell Media Historic Market Size Review by Type (2015-2020)1.3.2.1 Global Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.3.2.2 Global Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.3.2.3 Global Stem Cell Media Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2015-2026)1.3.3 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size Forecast by Type (2021-2026)1.3.3.1 Global Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share Breakdown by Application (2021-2026)1.3.3.2 Global Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share Breakdown by Application (2021-2026)1.3.3.3 Global Stem Cell Media Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2021-2026)1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type (2015-2020)1.4.1 North America Stem Cell Media Sales Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.4.2 Europe Stem Cell Media Sales Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Sales Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.4.4 Latin America Stem Cell Media Sales Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Sales Breakdown by Type (2015-2026)1.5 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19): Stem Cell Media Industry Impact1.5.1 How the Covid-19 is Affecting the Stem Cell Media Industry1.5.1.1 Stem Cell Media Business Impact Assessment Covid-191.5.1.2 Supply Chain Challenges1.5.1.3 COVID-19s Impact On Crude Oil and Refined Products1.5.2 Market Trends and Stem Cell Media Potential Opportunities in the COVID-19 Landscape1.5.3 Measures / Proposal against Covid-191.5.3.1 Government Measures to Combat Covid-19 Impact1.5.3.2 Proposal for Stem Cell Media Players to Combat Covid-19 Impact

2 Global Stem Cell Media Market Competition by Company2.1 Global Top Players by Stem Cell Media Sales (2015-2020)2.2 Global Top Players by Stem Cell Media Revenue (2015-2020)2.3 Global Top Players Stem Cell Media Average Selling Price (ASP) (2015-2020)2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Stem Cell Media Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type2.5 Stem Cell Media Market Competitive Situation and Trends2.5.1 Stem Cell Media Market Concentration Rate (2015-2020)2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Stem Cell Media Sales and Revenue in 20192.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) (based on the Revenue in Stem Cell Media as of 2019)2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Stem Cell Media Market2.8 Key Manufacturers Stem Cell Media Product Offered2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global Stem Cell Media Status and Outlook by Region (2015-2026)3.1 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2015 VS 2020 VS 20263.2 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size Market Share by Region (2015-2020)3.2.1 Global Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Region (2015-2020)3.2.2 Global Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Region (2015-2020)3.2.3 Global Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)3.3 Global Stem Cell Media Market Size Market Share by Region (2021-2026)3.3.1 Global Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Region (2021-2026)3.3.2 Global Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Region (2021-2026)3.3.3 Global Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2021-2026)3.4 North America Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.4.1 North America Stem Cell Media Revenue YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.4.2 North America Stem Cell Media Sales YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.5 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.5.1 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Revenue YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.5.2 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Sales YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.6 Europe Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.6.1 Europe Stem Cell Media Revenue YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.6.2 Europe Stem Cell Media Sales YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.7 Latin America Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.7.1 Latin America Stem Cell Media Revenue YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.7.2 Latin America Stem Cell Media Sales YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.8 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.8.1 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Revenue YoY Growth (2015-2026)3.8.2 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Sales YoY Growth (2015-2026)

4 Global Stem Cell Media by Application4.1 Stem Cell Media Segment by Application4.1.1 Scientific Research4.1.2 Industrial Production4.2 Global Stem Cell Media Sales by Application: 2015 VS 2020 VS 20264.3 Global Stem Cell Media Historic Sales by Application (2015-2020)4.4 Global Stem Cell Media Forecasted Sales by Application (2021-2026)4.5 Key Regions Stem Cell Media Market Size by Application4.5.1 North America Stem Cell Media by Application4.5.2 Europe Stem Cell Media by Application4.5.3 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media by Application4.5.4 Latin America Stem Cell Media by Application4.5.5 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media by Application5 North America Stem Cell Media Market Size by Country (2015-2026)5.1 North America Market Size Market Share by Country (2015-2020)5.1.1 North America Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2015-2020)5.1.2 North America Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2015-2020)5.2 North America Market Size Market Share by Country (2021-2026)5.2.1 North America Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2021-2026)5.2.2 North America Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2021-2026)5.3 North America Market Size YoY Growth by Country5.3.1 U.S. Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)5.3.2 Canada Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)6 Europe Stem Cell Media Market Size by Country (2015-2026)6.1 Europe Market Size Market Share by Country (2015-2020)6.1.1 Europe Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2015-2020)6.1.2 Europe Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2015-2020)6.2 Europe Market Size Market Share by Country (2021-2026)6.2.1 Europe Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2021-2026)6.2.2 Europe Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2021-2026)6.3 Europe Market Size YoY Growth by Country6.3.1 Germany Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)6.3.2 France Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)6.3.3 U.K. Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)6.3.4 Italy Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)6.3.5 Russia Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Market Size by Country (2015-2026)7.1 Asia-Pacific Market Size Market Share by Country (2015-2020)7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2015-2020)7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2015-2020)7.2 Asia-Pacific Market Size Market Share by Country (2021-2026)7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2021-2026)7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2021-2026)7.3 Asia-Pacific Market Size YoY Growth by Country7.3.1 China Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.2 Japan Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.3 South Korea Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.4 India Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.5 Australia Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.6 Taiwan Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.7 Indonesia Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.8 Thailand Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.9 Malaysia Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.10 Philippines Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)7.3.11 Vietnam Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)8 Latin America Stem Cell Media Market Size by Country (2015-2026)8.1 Latin America Market Size Market Share by Country (2015-2020)8.1.1 Latin America Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2015-2020)8.1.2 Latin America Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2015-2020)8.2 Latin America Market Size Market Share by Country (2021-2026)8.2.1 Latin America Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2021-2026)8.2.2 Latin America Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2021-2026)8.3 Latin America Market Size YoY Growth by Country8.3.1 Mexico Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)8.3.2 Brazil Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)8.3.3 Argentina Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)9 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Market Size by Country (2015-2026)9.1 Middle East and Africa Market Size Market Share by Country (2015-2020)9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2015-2020)9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2015-2020)9.2 Middle East and Africa Market Size Market Share by Country (2021-2026)9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Sales Market Share by Country (2021-2026)9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Stem Cell Media Revenue Market Share by Country (2021-2026)9.3 Middle East and Africa Market Size YoY Growth by Country9.3.1 Turkey Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)9.3.2 Saudi Arabia Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)9.3.3 UAE Stem Cell Media Market Size YoY Growth (2015-2026)

10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Stem Cell Media Business10.1 Thermo Fisher10.1.1 Thermo Fisher Corporation Information10.1.2 Thermo Fisher Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.1.3 Thermo Fisher Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.1.4 Thermo Fisher Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.1.5 Thermo Fisher Recent Development10.2 STEMCELL Technologies10.2.1 STEMCELL Technologies Corporation Information10.2.2 STEMCELL Technologies Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.2.3 STEMCELL Technologies Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.2.4 Thermo Fisher Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.2.5 STEMCELL Technologies Recent Development10.3 Merck Millipore10.3.1 Merck Millipore Corporation Information10.3.2 Merck Millipore Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.3.3 Merck Millipore Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.3.4 Merck Millipore Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.3.5 Merck Millipore Recent Development10.4 Lonza10.4.1 Lonza Corporation Information10.4.2 Lonza Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.4.3 Lonza Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.4.4 Lonza Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.4.5 Lonza Recent Development10.5 GE Healthcare10.5.1 GE Healthcare Corporation Information10.5.2 GE Healthcare Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.5.3 GE Healthcare Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.5.4 GE Healthcare Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.5.5 GE Healthcare Recent Development10.6 Miltenyi Biotec10.6.1 Miltenyi Biotec Corporation Information10.6.2 Miltenyi Biotec Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.6.3 Miltenyi Biotec Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.6.4 Miltenyi Biotec Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.6.5 Miltenyi Biotec Recent Development10.7 Corning10.7.1 Corning Corporation Information10.7.2 Corning Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.7.3 Corning Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.7.4 Corning Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.7.5 Corning Recent Development10.8 CellGenix10.8.1 CellGenix Corporation Information10.8.2 CellGenix Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.8.3 CellGenix Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.8.4 CellGenix Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.8.5 CellGenix Recent Development10.9 Takara10.9.1 Takara Corporation Information10.9.2 Takara Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.9.3 Takara Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.9.4 Takara Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.9.5 Takara Recent Development10.10 PromoCell10.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors10.10.2 Stem Cell Media Product Category, Application and Specification10.10.3 PromoCell Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.10.4 Main Business Overview10.10.5 PromoCell Recent Development10.11 HiMedia10.11.1 HiMedia Corporation Information10.11.2 HiMedia Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue10.11.3 HiMedia Stem Cell Media Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)10.11.4 HiMedia Stem Cell Media Products Offered10.11.5 HiMedia Recent Development

11 Stem Cell Media Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis11.1 Stem Cell Media Key Raw Materials11.1.1 Key Raw Materials11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers 11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure11.2.1 Raw Materials11.2.2 Labor Cost11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses11.3 Stem Cell Media Industrial Chain Analysis11.4 Market Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis11.4.1 Market Opportunities and Drivers11.4.2 Market Challenges11.4.3 Market Risks11.4.4 Porters Five Forces Analysis

12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors12.1 Sales Channel12.2 Distributors12.3 Downstream Customers

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix14.1 Methodology/Research Approach14.1.1 Research Programs/Design14.1.2 Market Size Estimation14.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation14.2 Data Source14.2.1 Secondary Sources14.2.2 Primary Sources14.3 Author Details14.4 Disclaimer

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COVID-19 Impact on Stem Cell Media Market Identify Which Types of Companies Could Potentially Benefit or Loose out From the Impact of COVID-19 -...

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ReNeuron jumps as it agrees research deal with unnamed "major pharmaceutical company" to develop emerging cell technology – Proactive…

() shares jumped 12% higher on Tuesday after the firm revealed it hassigned a research agreement with an unnamed major pharmaceutical company to develop the formers exosome technology.

In very simple laymans terms, exosomes are used by cells to communicate and are released as tiny nano-bubbles into the body to do so. The AIM-listed stem cell specialist has created its own line to deliver a drug payload.

Derived from the research groups CTX neural stem cell line, the exosomes will carry gene silencing sequences developed by the pharma company.

ReNeuron, which has is currently developing cell-based treatments for stroke victims and people with a severe eye disease, will be responsible for manufacturing exosomes and then loading them with the gene silencing sequences.

It will be paid by the pharmaceutical company for manufacturing and loading the exosomes in the initial phase of the tie-up.

The collaboration is in line with our strategy of collaborating and then out-licensing our proprietary exosome technology as a novel delivery vector and underlines the potential commercial value of these proprietary nanoparticles generated from our CTX neural stem cell line," said chief executive Olav Helleb in a statement.

Last week, ReNeuron said it was assessing the potential of the emerging cell technology to help in the fight against the coronavirus (COVID-19).

In morning trade on Tuesday, ReNeuron shares rose 12.4% to 122.50p.

-- Adds share price --

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ReNeuron jumps as it agrees research deal with unnamed "major pharmaceutical company" to develop emerging cell technology - Proactive...

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Umbilical Cord Stem Cells – Current Uses & Future Challenges

Umbilical cord blood contains haematopoietic (blood) stem cells. These cells are able to make the different types of cell in the blood - red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Haematopoietic stem cells, purified from bone marrow or blood, have long been used in stem cell treatments for leukaemia, blood and bone marrow disorders, cancer (when chemotherapy is used) and immune deficiencies.

Since 1989, umbilical cord blood has been used successfully to treat children with leukaemia, anaemias and other blood diseases. Researchers are now looking at ways of increasing the number of haematopoietic stem cells that can be obtained from cord blood, so that they can be used to treat adults routinely too.

Beyond these blood-related disorders, the therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood stem cells is unclear. No therapies for non-blood-related diseases have yet been developed using HSCs from either cord blood or adult bone marrow. There have been several reports suggesting that umbilical cord blood contains other types of stem cells that are able to produce cells from other tissues, such as nerve cells. Some other reports claim that umbilical cord blood contains embryonic stem cell-like cells. However, these findings are highly controversial among scientists and are not widely accepted.

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Umbilical Cord Stem Cells - Current Uses & Future Challenges

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Cord blood – Wikipedia

Blood in the placenta and umbilical cord after birth

Cord blood (umbilical cord blood) is blood that remains in the placenta and in the attached umbilical cord after childbirth. Cord blood is collected because it contains stem cells, which can be used to treat hematopoietic and genetic disorders.

Cord blood is composed of all the elements found in whole blood - red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, platelets.[1] Compared to whole blood some differences in the blood composition exist, for example, cord blood contains higher numbers of natural killer cells, lower absolute number of T-cells and a higher proportion of immature T-cells.[2] However, the interest in cord blood is mostly driven by the observation that cord blood also contains various types of stem and progenitor cells, mostly hematopoietic stem cells.[1][2][3] Some non-hematopoietic stem cell types are also present in cord blood, for example, mesenchymal stem cells, however these are present in much lower numbers that can be found in adult bone marrow.[2][3]Endothelial progenitor cells and multipotent unrestricted adult stem cells can also be found in cord blood.[3] The stem cells found in cord blood are often confused with embryonic stem cells - unlike embryonic stem cells, cord blood stem cells are all types of adult stem cells, are lineage restricted and are not pluripotent.[3][4][5]

Cord blood is used the same way that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to reconstitute bone marrow following radiation treatment for various blood cancers, and for various forms of anemia.[6][7] Its efficacy is similar as well.[6]

Adverse effects are similar to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, namely graft-versus-host disease if the cord blood is from a genetically different person, and the risk of severe infection while the immune system is reconstituted.[6] To assure that the smallest amount of complications occur during transplantation, levels of engraftment must be present; specifically both neutrophils and platelets must be being produced.[8] This process of neutrophil and platelet production after the transplant, however, takes much longer than that of stem cells.[8] In many cases, the engraftment time depends on the cell dose, or the amount of stem cells obtained in the sample of blood.[8] In Dr. Moises article about umbilical cord blood [9] (as cited in [8]), it was found that there is approximately 10% less stem cells in cord blood than there is in bone marrow. Therefore a sufficient amount of cord blood must be obtained in order to collect an adequate cell dose, however this amount varies from infant to infant and is irreplaceable. Given that this idea is quite new, there is still a lot of research that needs to be completed. For example, it is still unknown how long cord blood can safely be frozen without losing its beneficial effects.[8]

There is a lower incidence with cord blood compared with traditional HSCT, despite less stringent HLA match requirements.[6]

Umbilical cord blood is the blood left over in the placenta and in the umbilical cord after the birth of the baby. There are several methods for collecting cord blood. The method most commonly used in clinical practice is the "closed technique", which is similar to standard blood collection techniques. With this method, the technician cannulates the vein of the severed umbilical cord using a needle that is connected to a blood bag, and cord blood flows through the needle into the bag. On average, the closed technique enables collection of about 75 ml of cord blood.[10]

Collected cord blood is cryopreserved and then stored in a cord blood bank for future transplantation. Cord blood collection is typically depleted of red blood cells before cryopreservation to ensure high rates of stem cell recovery.[11]

The first successful cord blood transplant (CBT) was done in 1988 in a child with Fanconi anemia.[6] Early efforts to use CBT in adults led to mortality rates of about 50%, due somewhat to the procedure being done in very sick people, but perhaps also due to slow development of immune cells from the transplant.[6] By 2013, 30,000 CBT procedures had been performed and banks held about 600,000 units of cord blood.[7]

The AABB has generated accreditation standards for cord blood banking facilities.[12]

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates any facility that stores cord blood; cord blood intended for use in the person from whom it came is not regulated, but cord blood for use in others is regulated as a drug and as a biologic.[13] Several states also have regulations for cord blood banks.[12]

In Europe, Canada, and Australia use of cord blood is regulated as well.[12] In the United Kingdom the NHS Cord Blood Bank was set up in 1996 to collect, process, store and supply cord blood; it is a public cord blood bank and part of the NHS.[14]

A cord blood bank may be private (i.e. the blood is stored for and the costs paid by donor families) or public (i.e. stored and made available for use by unrelated donors). While public cord blood banking is widely supported, private cord banking is controversial in both the medical and parenting community. Although umbilical cord blood is well-recognized to be useful for treating hematopoietic and genetic disorders, some controversy surrounds the collection and storage of umbilical cord blood by private banks for the baby's use. Only a small percentage of babies (estimated at between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 200,000[15]) ever use the umbilical cord blood that is stored. The American Academy of Pediatrics 2007 Policy Statement on Cord Blood Banking stated: "Physicians should be aware of the unsubstantiated claims of private cord blood banks made to future parents that promise to insure infants or family members against serious illnesses in the future by use of the stem cells contained in cord blood." and "private storage of cord blood as 'biological insurance' is unwise" unless there is a family member with a current or potential need to undergo a stem cell transplantation.[15][16] The American Academy of Pediatrics also notes that the odds of using a person's own cord blood is 1 in 200,000 while the Institute of Medicine says that only 14 such procedures have ever been performed.[17]

Private storage of one's own cord blood is unlawful in Italy and France, and it is also discouraged in some other European countries. The American Medical Association states "Private banking should be considered in the unusual circumstance when there exists a family predisposition to a condition in which umbilical cord stem cells are therapeutically indicated. However, because of its cost, limited likelihood of use, and inaccessibility to others, private banking should not be recommended to low-risk families."[18] The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also encourage public cord banking and discourage private cord blood banking. Nearly all cord blood transplantations come from public banks, rather than private banks,[16][19] partly because most treatable conditions can't use a person's own cord blood.[15][20] The World Marrow Donor Association and European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies states "The possibility of using ones own cord blood stem cells for regenerative medicine is currently purely hypothetical....It is therefore highly hypothetical that cord blood cells kept for autologous use will be of any value in the future" and "the legitimacy of commercial cord blood banks for autologous use should be questioned as they sell a service which has presently no real use regarding therapeutic options."[21]

The American Academy of Pediatrics supports efforts to provide information about the potential benefits and limitations of cord blood banking and transplantation so that parents can make an informed decision. In addition, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that if a patient requests information on umbilical cord blood banking, balanced information should be given. Cord blood education is also supported by legislators at the federal and state levels. In 2005, the National Academy of Sciences published an Institute of Medicine (IoM) report titled "Establishing a National Cord Blood Stem Cell Bank Program".[22]

In March 2004, the European Union Group on Ethics (EGE) has issued Opinion No.19[23] titled Ethical Aspects of Umbilical Cord Blood Banking. The EGE concluded that "[t]he legitimacy of commercial cord blood banks for autologous use should be questioned as they sell a service, which has presently, no real use regarding therapeutic options. Thus they promise more than they can deliver. The activities of such banks raise serious ethical criticisms."[23]

Though uses of cord blood beyond blood and immunological disorders is speculative, some research has been done in other areas.[24] Any such potential beyond blood and immunological uses is limited by the fact that cord cells are hematopoietic stem cells (which can differentiate only into blood cells), and not pluripotent stem cells (such as embryonic stem cells, which can differentiate into any type of tissue). Cord blood has been studied as a treatment for diabetes.[25] However, apart from blood disorders, the use of cord blood for other diseases is not in routine clinical use and remains a major challenge for the stem cell community.[24][25]

Along with cord blood, Wharton's jelly and the cord lining have been explored as sources for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC),[26] and as of 2015 had been studied in vitro, in animal models, and in early stage clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases,[27] as well as neurological deficits, liver diseases, immune system diseases, diabetes, lung injury, kidney injury, and leukemia.[28]

Cord blood is being used to get stem cells with which to test in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus.[29]

The stem cells from umbilical cord blood are also being used in the treatment of a number of blood diseases including blood cancers.[30]

Cord blood is also being studied as a substitute for normal blood transfusions in the developing world.[30][31] More research is necessary prior to the generalized utilization of cord blood transfusion.[30]

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