Editas Medicine Or Crocs, Inc.: We See Crocs As The Better Buy Choice – Seeking Alpha

Investment Thesis

The investment thesis of this article is that the most important reason for investing in any stock is its potential for portfolio wealth-building. That requires informed forecasts of its likely future price. As a starting point we have legal access to the near-future price-range expectations of the most experienced, best resourced players in the equity investment community, the Market-Makers.

This is an analysis of how the prices of specific securities are likely to change in the next 3-4 months, based on the way major investment organizations ("institutional investors" or "big-$" funds) have perceived those prospects and made multi-million-dollar trade changes of holdings in their multi-billion-dollar portfolios. That rationale is explained further in my SA blog's article "Why Read This Report?"

The report is not a study of years-plus effects of economics, technology, politics, or competitive use of resources on earnings per share of securities. Such studies by others are embedded in the big-$-funds stock price forecasts, prompting their volume-trade transaction orders. Analyses of such influences are covered as helpful background by other SA contributors.

This is a comparison of present-day opportunities for capital gain among many related alternative choices for wealth accumulation as seen by investors with the capital and human resources sufficient to cause such price changes.

"Editas Medicine, Inc. operates as a clinical stage genome editing company. The company focuses on developing transformative genomic medicines to treat a range of serious diseases. It develops a proprietary genome editing platform based on CRISPR technology to target genetically addressable diseases and therapeutic areas. The company develops EDIT-101 for Leber Congenital Amaurosis type 10, a genetic form of vision loss that leads to blindness in childhood. It also develops other therapies for eye diseases, such as Usher Syndrome 2A, which is a form of retinitis pigmentosa that also includes hearing loss; Retinitis Pigmentosa, a progressive form of retinal degeneration; and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 that causes lifelong infections leading to ocular and oral disease. In addition, the company develops hematopoietic stem cells for treating sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia. It has a research collaboration with Juno Therapeutics, Inc. to develop engineered T cells for cancer; strategic alliance and option agreement with Allergan Pharmaceuticals International Limited to discover, develop, and commercialize new gene editing medicines for a range of ocular disorders; and strategic research collaboration and cross-licensing agreement with BlueRock Therapeutics to combine their respective genome editing and cell therapy technologies to discover, develop, and manufacture engineered cell medicines. The company also has a strategic research collaboration agreement with Editas Medicine, Inc. to explore in vivo delivery of genome editing medicines to treat neurological diseases. The company was formerly known as Gengine, Inc. and changed its name to Editas Medicine, Inc. in November 2013. Editas Medicine, Inc. was founded in 2013 and is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts."

Source: Yahoo Finance

"Crocs, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and distributes casual lifestyle footwear and accessories for men, women, and children worldwide. It offers various footwear products, including clogs, sandals, flips and slides, shoes, and boots under the Crocs brand name. The company sells its products in approximately 85 countries through wholesalers and distributors, as well as through stores and e-commerce sites. As of December 31, 2018, it had 120 retail stores; 68 kiosks and store-in-stores; 195 outlet stores; and 13 company-operated e-commerce sites. The company was founded in 1999 and is headquartered in Niwot, Colorado."

Source: Yahoo Finance

The companies are different, but the stocks have similar potentials for wealth-building by individual investors in the coming 3-4 months. And those prospects come from the likely actions of the same source: Institutional Investor interests. The potentials can be described in near-identical ways, for the purpose of settling on an investment choice.

The prospects for these stocks get evaluated in the same way: From the cost of protecting temporarily at-risk capital from unwanted price changes. Specification of how big and how likely those changes may be come about at concurrent times and through the same eyes for both stocks.

Our source is the market-making community serving "institutional" investment funds and organizations managing multi-billion-dollar portfolios by negotiating and facilitating big-volume "block" trades. Their necessary hedging actions reveal their price expectation insights, updated daily as pictured in Figure 1 for Editas Medicine, Inc. (EDIT) and for Crocs, Inc. (CROX) in Figure 2.

Figure 1

source: Author

The vertical lines in this picture are not past actual market prices like those seen in "technical analysis charts." Instead, they are forecasts of likely future ranges of market stock prices implied as probable in coming weeks and near months. The heavy dot in each vertical is the market close price on the day of the forecast. It splits the forecast range into upside and downside price change prospects.

The imbalances between up and down potentials are what are useful in estimating both coming price direction and extent of change. Their proportions are measured by the Range Index [RI]. Its measurement quantity is the percentage of the whole forecast range which lies below the current market quote. A 20 RI has 4 times as much upside prospect (the other 80%) as down. A 33 RI has only 2 times as much upside potential as downside.

Segregating past MM implied forecasts by their RIs produces clues to how market prices have reacted to the conditions seen by the MM community at various points in time. We use a 5-year sliding window to count how many prior forecasts (the sample size) have been like the current Range Index.

The small "thumbnail" pictures in Figures 1 & 2 show how these RIs have been distributed daily over the past 5 years.

Figure 2

source: Author

How effective the MMs have been in forecasting for these stocks is a matter of market records, when conditions of uncertainty similar to today's are examined. That was done in the rows of data between the graphics of each figure. For ease of comparison, they are repeated and slightly expanded in Figure 3:

Figure 3

What is important to us in this analysis is how big a price gain is in prospect, column [E], and how likely as a proportion [H] (out of 100) is today's RI forecast [G] to produce a profit. The odds come from the [L] sample of such 5-years of daily prior forecasts [M].

Column [H] of Figure 3 tells that CROX wins profits in 96% of its forecasts at RIs of 50. Some 28 forecasts [L] in the past 5 years have had today's upside-to-downside price change proportions, and resulted in +13.6% average payoff realizations.

The size of [ I ] relative to [E] is a measure of [E]'s credibility in [N]. CROX's performance (at this level of its RI) has been more successful than MMs are currently apprehensive about, should they need to take a "short" posture. So the credibility of MM forecasts for CROX (1.30) is greater than for EDIT forecasts (0.80) where CROX current profit expectations were substantially exceeded. Albeit that EDIT payoffs were larger than CROX's.

But the EDIT forecasts were done at a higher exposure to risk [F] of -10.3% compared to CROX's of only -6.4%. And it turns out that the exposures were rarely incurred in the case of CROX. For prior forecasts like these the odds of profitable outcomes [H] were 96 out of 100. Not so for EDIT, about 1/6th of its 100 sample cost some of the -10% price drawdowns.

Still, CROX's current Range Index of 50 leaves less of the expected price range of [E] than does EDIT's RI of 29. We accommodate these differences by weighting the good [E] by [H] and the bad [F] by 1-[H] to get a risk-adjusted [O]+[P] of [Q].

There we have a yardstick of opportunity adaptable to any contestant security in the competition for inclusion in an investment portfolio.

Time required [J] to accomplish the payoff is another important dimension for any investment mission. The retirement, tuition, or health emergency clock won't patiently wait for "long-term-trend" investments to be "sure" of their "passive investment" buy&hold strategy results.

Compound Annual Gain Rates [CAGR] are the essential measures [K]. Figure 3's rows are ranked by the historical results (of today's RI statistics) with SPY providing a lackluster +6% at today's RI outlook of 54.

One additional complication of being time-efficient in an investment strategy is that the score-keeping can't be easily sliced up into uniform time periods. That is not what happens to holdings in an active investment strategy. Gains (and losses) occur in irregular lumps of time, and we need to evaluate likely prospects in the way they may be accumulated.

What is done in proper financial analysis of any capital commitment is to anticipate the RATE of gain or cost in units of change per time of involvement. The most commonly used measure is basis points per day, where a basis point is 1/100th of a percent.

That's a tiny unit, but is what works best. Put together and maintained each day for a year, 19 of them would double your investment. Compounding makes them powerful.

In Figure 3 we use the Odds of gain [H] as a weight for the average prior payoffs [ I ], and take the complement of [H] ( 100 - H ) as a weight for the risk prospect [F]. Put together as [O] + [P] in [Q] we have an odds-weighted net outcome of each row's prior MM RI forecast sample [L]. Then by converting those [Q] nets into bp/day in [R] we have a guide to making investment selection decisions across a broader array of alternatives.

Using [R] as an integrated measure of wealth-building desirability places CROX first trivially over EDIT, and involves an indicated shorter average holding period of 6+ weeks of market days, rather than EDIT's 8-minus weeks.

CROX competes effectively in the broad population of MM forecasts for 2710 stocks, ETFs and market indexes. That population carries a large number of equities with infrequent and overly-optimistic forecasts resulting in a rate of loss of -5.5 bp/day when adjusted for price risk. The population win odds are only 60, with losses at 40 out of every 100. Decades of daily experiences show Win Odds below 80 to be problematic.

Better prospects for near capital gains currently exist in either of this pair than among the average of the best 20 of that forecast population. EDIT offers the prospect of gain at a CAGR rate of +229%, compared to SPY's +6% and the forecast population of +13% (ignoring risk). The population's best 20 have histories with CAGRs averaging +170%.

Another important dimension which ought to be included generally by an astute investment audience may not be included for lack of the information's general availability. That is the lack of awareness of the potential capital gains in CROX by individual investors. Please check the columns [S] thru [V] of Figure 3.

It shows CROX to be an almost unknown presence among SA Readers - only 8,700 have an interest, compared to over 400,000 curious of the outlook for SPY. Little wonder that at today's RI the Win Odds are at 96. No guarantees, of course, but it usually profits for an individual investor to be an odds-player.

Our preference here favors the slightly quicker but surer buy of Crocs, Inc. over Editas Medicine, Inc. Both are easily favored as capital gain candidates over most other stock buy opportunities at this point in time.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions other than to MGPI within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Additional disclosure: Disclaimer: Peter Way and generations of the Way Family are long-term providers of perspective information, earlier helping professional investors and now individual investors, discriminate between wealth-building opportunities in individual stocks and ETFs. We do not manage money for others outside of the family but do provide pro bono consulting for a limited number of not-for-profit organizations.We firmly believe investors need to maintain skin in their game by actively initiating commitment choices of capital and time investments in their personal portfolios. So, our information presents for D-I-Y investor guidance what the arguably best-informed professional investors are thinking. Their insights, revealed through their own self-protective hedging actions, tell what they believe is most likely to happen to the prices of specific issues in coming weeks and months. Evidences of how such prior forecasts have worked out are routinely provided in the SA blog of my name.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, but may initiate a long position in CROX over the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

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Editas Medicine Or Crocs, Inc.: We See Crocs As The Better Buy Choice - Seeking Alpha

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BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Wins 2020 ‘Buzz of BIO’ Award for ALS Investigational Therapy – ALS News Today

For its promising investigational therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics is theBuzz of BIO 2020 winnerin the Public Therapeutic Biotech category.

The Buzz of BIO contest identifies U.S. companies with groundbreaking, early-stage potential to improve lives. The event also is anopportunity to make investor connections that could take products to the next phase.

Ten biotechnology companies are nominated in each of the three categories ofBuzz of BIO: Public Therapeutic Biotech, Private Therapeutic Biotech, and Diagnostics and Beyond. In the Public Therapeutic Biotech category that BrainStorm won, nominated companies must be actively developing a publicly traded human treatment intended for review by theU.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

As a developer of autologous cellular therapies treatments that use a patients own cells and tissues for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, BrainStorm is now testing its NurOwn therapy for safety and effectiveness. The treatment involves extracting, from human bone, marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of differentiating into other cell types. The MSCs are then matured into a specific cell type that produces neurotrophic factors compounds that promote nervous tissue growth and survival. They are then reintroduced to the body via injection into muscles and/or the spinal canal.

Backed by a California Institute for Regenerative Medicine grant, Brainstorm has fully enrolledits randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial (NCT03280056) at six U.S. sites in California, Massachusetts, and Minnesota. Some 200 ALS patients are participating. A secondary safety analysis by the trials independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) revealed no new concerns. Every two months, study subjects will be given three injections into the spinal canal of either NurOwn or placebo.

The trial is expected to conclude late this year. Results will be announced shortly afterward.

In a Phase 2 study (NCT02017912), which included individuals with rapidly progressing ALS, NurOwn demonstrated a positive safety profile as well as prospective efficacy.

The use of autologous MSC cells to potentially treat ALS was given orphan drug status by both the FDA and the European Medicines Agency.

Thanks to everyone who voted for BrainStorm during the Buzz of BIO competition,Chaim Lebovits, BrainStorm president and CEO, said in a press release. The entire management team at BrainStorm was very pleased with the results of this competition, and we look forward to presenting to an audience of accredited investors who may benefit from the companys story. We thank the BIO[Biotechnology Innovation Organization] team for singling out BrainStorms NurOwn as a key technology with the potential to improve lives.

As a contest winner, BrainStorm is invited to givea presentation at theBio CEO & Investor Conference, to be held Feb. 1011 in New York City, along with exposure to multiple industry elites and potential investors.

NurOwn cells also are being tested in a Phase 2 clinical study (NCT03799718) in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mary M. Chapman began her professional career at United Press International, running both print and broadcast desks. She then became a Michigan correspondent for what is now Bloomberg BNA, where she mainly covered the automotive industry plus legal, tax and regulatory issues. A member of the Automotive Press Association and one of a relatively small number of women on the car beat, Chapman has discussed the automotive industry multiple times of National Public Radio, and in 2014 was selected as an honorary judge at the prestigious Cobble Beach Concours dElegance. She has written for numerous national outlets including Time, People, Al-Jazeera America, Fortune, Daily Beast, MSN.com, Newsweek, The Detroit News and Detroit Free Press. The winner of the Society of Professional Journalists award for outstanding reporting, Chapman has had dozens of articles in The New York Times, including two on the coveted front page. She has completed a manuscript about centenarian car enthusiast Margaret Dunning, titled Belle of the Concours.

Total Posts: 6

Ins holds a PhD in Biomedical Sciences from the University of Lisbon, Portugal, where she specialized in blood vessel biology, blood stem cells, and cancer. Before that, she studied Cell and Molecular Biology at Universidade Nova de Lisboa and worked as a research fellow at Faculdade de Cincias e Tecnologias and Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia. Ins currently works as a Managing Science Editor, striving to deliver the latest scientific advances to patient communities in a clear and accurate manner.

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BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Wins 2020 'Buzz of BIO' Award for ALS Investigational Therapy - ALS News Today

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The recombinant cell culture supplements market analysis by BIS Research projects the market to grow at a significant CAGR of 12.93% during the…

NEW YORK, Jan. 6, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --

Global Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market to Reach $977.8 Million by 2029

Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05835676/?utm_source=PRN

Key Questions Answered in this Report: What is the role of media and supplements in cell culture and what are the advantages associated with serum-free media? What is the importance of recombinant proteins in cell culture applications? What are the key trends of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market? How is the market evolving and what is its future scope? What are the major drivers, challenges, and opportunities of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market? What are the key developmental strategies implemented by the key players of the global recombinant cell culture supplements to sustain the competition of the market? What is the percentage share of each of the key players in different key developmental strategies? What is the regulatory scenario of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market? What are the initiatives implemented by different governmental bodies and guidelines put forward to regulate the commercialization of recombinant cell culture supplements products? What was the market size of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market in 2018 and what is the market size anticipated to be in 2029? What is the expected growth rate of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market during the period between 2019 and 2029? What are the different recombinant supplement products involved in cell culture? Which product type dominate the market in 2018 and why? Which product type are expected to witness highest growth rate and to dominate in market in 2029? What are the different application areas of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market? Which application type dominates the market in 2018 and is expected to dominate in 2029? What was the market value of the leading segments and sub-segments of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market? What are the different macro and micro factors influencing the growth of the market? Which region is expected to contribute the highest sales of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market during the period between 2018 and 2029? Which region and country carries the potential for the significant expansion of key companies for different recombinant cell culture supplement products? What are the leading countries of different regions that contribute significantly toward the growth of the recombinant cell culture supplements market? What are the key players of the global recombinant cell culture supplements market and what is their role in the market?

Global Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market Forecast, 2019-2029 The recombinant cell culture supplements market analysis projects the market to grow at a significant CAGR of 12.93% during the forecast period, 2019-2029. The recombinant cell culture supplements market generated $258.8 million revenue in 2018, in terms of value. The recombinant cell culture supplements market growth has been primarily attributed to the major drivers in this market such as advantages offered by recombinant cell culture supplements and the promising impact displayed by them in culturing cells act as drivers for the growth of the market.Moreover, an increase in funding and investment supporting the advancement of life-science research with an ever-increasing demand for advanced cell culture systems have boosted the adoption rate of recombinant cell-culture supplements products. However, there are significant challenges which are restraining the market growth.These challenges include the shortage of skilled professionals and lack of proper laboratory infrastructure. Further, high cost of the cell culturing process and complications involved in it are also acting as challenge for the market. Expert Quote "The most important advantage of utilizing these recombinant proteins is that they facilitate large batch biomanufacturing with minimal risk of contamination and improved adhesion. Another advantage is that it involves animal-free manufacturing which in turn simplifies regulatory issues and export-import issues." Scope of the Market Intelligence on Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market The recombinant cell culture supplements market report provides a holistic view of the market in terms of various factors influencing it, including product optimization, and technological advancements. The scope of this report is centered upon conducting a detailed study of the products and manufacturers allied with the market. In addition, the study also includes exhaustive information on the unmet needs, perception on the new products, competitive landscape, market share of leading manufacturers, growth potential of each underlying sub-segment, and company, as well as other vital information with respect to global recombinant cell culture supplements market. Market Segmentation The recombinant cell culture supplements market segmentation (on the basis of product) is further segmented into recombinant insulin, transferrin, albumin, among others. The recombinant cell culture supplements market segmentation (on the basis of application) is segmented into stem cell and regenerative medicine, bio-production, and academic and research. The recombinant cell culture supplements market segmentation (on the basis of region) is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Rest-of-the-World. Key Companies in the Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market The key manufacturers who have been contributing significantly to the Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market include Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Merck KGaA, Becton, Dickinson and Company, Hi-Media Laboratories, Sartorius AG, InVitro, SeraCare Life Sciences, Inc., GE Healthcare, Novozymes A/S, and Advanced Biotechnologies, Inc., among others. Countries Covered North America U.S. Canada Europe Germany France U.K. Italy Spain The Netherlands Rest-of-Europe Asia-Pacific China Japan South Korea India Australia Rest-of-Asia-Pacific Latin America Brazil Mexico Rest-of-Latin America Rest-of-the-World Russia Israel Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A.)

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The recombinant cell culture supplements market analysis by BIS Research projects the market to grow at a significant CAGR of 12.93% during the...

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Wearable monitoring technology helps nurses avoid waking sleep-deprived patients – ABC News

Updated January 06, 2020 08:30:20

Since being diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma 18 months ago, Aliona Grytsenko has spent much of her time in and out of hospital.

When the 22-year-old architecture student developed an infection after having a stem cell transplant, she had to be woken every hour to have her vital signs checked.

"It made it really hard to sleep and rest in the midst of having fevers and going through the treatment and side effects themselves. It's really difficult to manage that when you're so sleep-deprived," Ms Grytsenko said.

Registered nurse and researcher Elise Button has worked in cancer and palliative care for 10 years and said waking people up was one of the worst parts of the job.

"We routinely wake people up every four hours if they're more unwell we wake them up every hour or 15 minutes to do vital sign monitoring to make sure they're safe," Dr Button said.

"The sicker they are, the more we wake them up."

But new technology being trialled at the 20-bed Kilcoy Hospital, north-west of Brisbane, may put an end to what has been one of nurses' core responsibilities taking and recording vital signs.

Patients are being fitted with wearable body sensors that will automatically record their temperature, heart rate, oxygen levels and blood pressure.

Dr Button said it was a potential game-changer in nursing care.

"It gives us more time to focus on all the other roles that a nurse does that are important particularly communicating with people, sitting down and talking to them, while we know they're being safely monitored," Dr Button said.

"This allows people who are unwell to get sleep and rest, with peace of mind that they're being safely monitored."

The Metro North Hospital and Health Service's Adam Scott is overseeing the trial and says the feedback so far has been positive.

"Patients have commented they no longer have to be woken through the night. They can sleep through the process," Professor Scott said.

The wireless monitoring technology has been in development for a decade, but it is the first time in the world it has been put to the test by an entire hospital.

It could also help save hospital bottom lines.

"We have a growing level and burden of chronic disease, we have higher life expectancies and higher community expectations on how healthcare is provided," Professor Scott said.

"We know we have to move towards a value-based healthcare approach to better provide services and care for our patients."

The Australian distributor for the wireless monitoring device, Wearable Health Tech, estimates there are more than 100 million patient observations performed each year in Australia.

Company spokesman Ben Magid said the system not only gave time back to staff to spend on patient care, but improved patient safety through continuous monitoring.

"If patients do start to go downhill, staff are alerted so they can intervene sooner and prevent adverse events and complications from developing," Mr Magid said.

If the trial goes well, the technology could be used more widely, allowing patients to recover at home, while still being monitored by hospital staff.

Ms Grytsenko said it would have given her peace of mind.

"In the first few weeks after the stem cell transplant you don't know how you're going, you don't know, is that bad enough that I should call someone and ask or is it OK?'' Ms Grytsenko said.

Professor Scott said he believed it could also revolutionise rural medicine.

"We could have a command centre located in a metropolitan city where the specialist staff are sitting supervising and looking after and viewing patients that are located in a rural facility," Professor Scott said.

The trial will run until June.


First posted January 06, 2020 06:56:17

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Wearable monitoring technology helps nurses avoid waking sleep-deprived patients - ABC News

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Stem Cell Banking Market to Witness Exponential Growth by 2023 – Markets Gazette 24

A new market research report on theGlobal Stem Cell Banking markethas introduced byKD Market Insights. The report is dedicated to in-depth industry analysis of the globalStem Cell Bankingmarket. TheGlobal Stem Cell Bankinganalysis is broken down on different segmentation levelsincluding MarketBy Cell Type, By Bank Type, By Service Type, By Utilization.

The globalstem cell banking marketwas valued at $1,986 million in 2016, and is estimated to reach $6,956 million by 2023, registering aCAGR of 19.5%from 2017 to 2023. Stem cell banking is a process where the stem cell care isolated from different sources such as umbilical cord and bone marrow that is stored and preserved for future use. These cells can be cryo-frozen and stored for decades. Private and public banks are different types of banks available to store stem cells.

Get Report Sample Copy @https://www.kdmarketinsights.com/sample/3947Increase in R&D activities in regards with applications of stem cells and increase in prevalence of fatal chronic diseases majorly drive the growth of the global stem cell banking market. Moreover, the large number of births occurring globally and growth in GDP & disposable income help increase the number of stem cell units stored, which would help fuel the market growth. However, legal and ethical issues related to stem cell collections and high processing & storage cost are projected to hamper the market growth. The initiative taken by organizations and companies to spread awareness in regards with the benefits of stem cells and untapped market in the developing regions help to open new avenues for the growth of stem cell banking market in the near future.

The globalstem cell banking marketis segmented based on cell type, bank type, service type, utilization, and region. Based on cell type, the market is classified into umbilical cord stem cells, adult stem cells, and embryonic stem cells. Depending on bank type, it is bifurcated into public and private. By service type, it is categorized into collection & transportation, processing, analysis, and storage. By utilization, it is classified into used and unused. Based on region, it is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.

KEY MARKET BENEFITS This report offers a detailed quantitative analysis of the current market trends from 2016 to 2023 to identify the prevailing opportunities. The market estimations provided in this report are based on comprehensive analysis of the key developments in the industry. In-depth analysis based on geography facilitates in analyzing the regional market to assist in strategic business planning. The development strategies adopted by key manufacturers are enlisted in the report to understand the competitive scenario of the market.


By Cell Type Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Cord Blood Cord Tissue Placenta Adult Stem Cell Embryonic Stem Cell

By Bank Type Public Private

By Service Type Collection & Transportation Processing Analysis Storage

By Utilization Used Unused

By RegionNorth America U.S. Canada MexicoEurope Germany UK France Spain Italy Rest of EuropeAsia-Pacific Japan China Singapore India South Korea Rest of Asia-PacificLAMEA Brazil Saudi Arabia South Africa Rest of LAMEA

KEY PLAYERS PROFILED Cord Blood Registry ViaCord Cryo-Cell China Cord Blood Corporation Cryo-Save New York Cord Blood Program CordVida Americord CryoHoldco Vita34

Access Complete Research Report with TOC @https://www.kdmarketinsights.com/product/stem-cell-banking-market-amr

Table of Content

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1. Report description1.2. Key benefits for stakeholders1.3. Key market segments1.4. Research methodology1.4.1. Secondary research1.4.2. Primary research1.4.3. Analyst tools and models


CHAPTER 3: MARKET OVERVIEW3.1. Market definition and scope3.2. Key findings3.2.1. Top investment pockets3.2.2. Top winning strategies3.3. Porters five forces analysis3.4. Top Player Positioning3.5. Market dynamics3.5.1. Drivers3.5.1.1. Large number of newborns3.5.1.2. Increase in R&D activities for application of stem cells3.5.1.3. Increase in prevalence of fatal chronic diseases3.5.1.4. Growth in GDP and disposable income3.5.2. Restraints3.5.2.1. Legal and ethical issues during collection of stem cells3.5.2.2. High processing and storage cost3.5.2.3. Lack of acceptance and awareness3.5.3. Opportunities3.5.3.1. Initiatives to spread awareness3.5.3.2. Untapped market in developing regions

CHAPTER 4: STEM CELL BANKING MARKET, BY CELL TYPE4.1. Overview4.1.1. Market size and forecast4.2. Umbilical Cord Stem Cells4.2.1. Key market trends and growth opportunities4.2.2. Market size and forecast4.2.3. Market analysis, by country4.2.4. Cord Blood4.2.4.1. Market size and forecast4.2.5. Cord Tissue4.2.5.1. Market size and forecast4.2.6. Placenta4.2.6.1. Market size and forecast4.3. Adult stem cells4.3.1. Key market trends and growth opportunities4.3.2. Market size and forecast4.3.3. Market analysis, by country4.4. Embryonic stem cells4.4.1. Key market trends and opportunities4.4.2. Market size and forecast4.4.3. Market analysis, by country

CHAPTER 5: STEM CELL BANKING MARKET, BY BANK TYPE5.1. Overview5.1.1. Market size and forecast5.2. Public5.2.1. Market size and forecast5.2.2. Market analysis, by country5.3. Private5.3.1. Market size and forecast5.3.2. Market analysis, by country

CHAPTER 6: STEM CELL BANKING MARKET, BY SERVICE TYPE6.1. Overview6.1.1. Market size and forecast6.2. Collection and Transportation6.2.1. Market size and forecast6.2.2. Market analysis, by country6.3. Processing6.3.1. Market size and forecast6.3.2. Market analysis, by country6.4. Analysis6.4.1. Market size and forecast6.4.2. Market analysis, by country6.5. Storage6.5.1. Market size and forecast6.5.2. Market analysis, by country

CHAPTER 7: STEM CELL BANKING MARKET, BY UTILIZATION7.1. Overview7.1.1. Market size and forecast7.2. Used7.2.1. Market size and forecast7.2.2. Market analysis, by country7.3. Unused7.3.1. Market size and forecast7.3.2. Market analysis, by country

CHAPTER 8: STEM CELL BANKING MARKET, BY REGION8.1. Overview8.1.1. Market size and forecast8.2. North America8.2.1. Key market trends and opportunities8.2.2. Market size and forecast, by cell type8.2.3. Market size and forecast, by bank type8.2.4. Market size and forecast, by service type8.2.5. Market size and forecast, by utilization8.2.6. Market size and forecast, by country8.2.6.1. U.S. Market size and forecast, by cell type8.2.7. Market size and forecast, by bank type8.2.7.1. U.S. Market size and forecast, by service type8.2.7.2. U.S. Market size and forecast, by utilization8.2.7.3. Canada Market size and forecast, by cell type8.2.7.4. Market size and forecast, by bank type8.2.7.5. Canada Market size and forecast, by service type8.2.7.6. Canada Market size and forecast, by utilization8.2.7.7. Mexico Market size and forecast, by cell type8.2.7.8. Market size and forecast, by bank type8.2.7.9. Mexico Market size and forecast, by service type8.2.7.10. Mexico Market size and forecast, by utilization

Continue @Check for Discount @https://www.kdmarketinsights.com/discount/3947About Us:KD Market Insightsoffers a comprehensive database of syndicated research studies, customized reports, and consulting services. These reports are created to help in making smart, instant and crucial decisions based on extensive and in-depth quantitative information, supported by extensive analysis and industry insights. Our dedicated in-house team ensures the reports satisfy the requirement of the client. We aim at providing value service to our clients. Our reports are backed by extensive industry coverage and is made sure to give importance to the specific needs of our clients. The main idea is to enable our clients to make an informed decision, by keeping them and ourselves up to date with the latest trends in the market.Contact Us:KD Market Insights150 State Street, Albany,New York, USA 12207+1 (518) 300-1215Email:sales@kdmarketinsights.comWebsite:http://www.kdmarketinsights.com

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Stem Cell Banking Market to Witness Exponential Growth by 2023 - Markets Gazette 24

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NIST researchers use artificial intelligence for quality control of stem cell-derived tissues – National Institutes of Health

News Release

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Technique key to scale up manufacturing of therapies from induced pluripotent stem cells.

Researchers used artificial intelligence (AI) to evaluate stem cell-derived patches of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tissue for implanting into the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness.

The proof-of-principle study helps pave the way for AI-based quality control of therapeutic cells and tissues. The method was developed by researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and is described in a report appearing online today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health.

This AI-based method of validating stem cell-derived tissues is a significant improvement over conventional assays, which are low-yield, expensive, and require a trained user, said Kapil Bharti, Ph.D., a senior investigator in the NEI Ocular and Stem Cell Translational Research Section.

Our approach will help scale up manufacturing and will speed delivery of tissues to the clinic, added Bharti, who led the research along with Carl Simon Jr., Ph.D., and Peter Bajcsy, Ph.D., of NIST.

Cells of the RPE nourish the light-sensing photoreceptors in the eye and are among the first to die from geographic atrophy, commonly known as dry AMD. Photoreceptors die without the RPE, resulting in vision loss and blindness.

Bhartis team is working on a technique for making RPE replacement patches from AMD patients own cells. Patient blood cells are coaxed in the lab to become induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), which can become any type of cell in the body. The IPS cells are then seeded onto a biodegradable scaffold where they are induced to differentiate into mature RPE. The scaffold-RPE patch is implanted in the back of the eye, behind the retina, to rescue photoreceptors and preserve vision.

The patch successfully preserved vision in an animal model, and a clinical trial is planned.

The researchers AI-based validation method employed deep neural networks, an AI technique that performs mathematical computations aimed at detecting patterns in unlabeled and unstructured data. The algorithm operated on images of the RPE obtained using quantitative bright-field absorbance microscopy. The networks were trained to identify visual indications of RPE maturation that correlated with positive RPE function.

Those single-cell visual characteristics were then fed into traditional machine-learning algorithms, which in turn helped the computers learn to detect discrete cell features crucial to the prediction of RPE tissue function.

The method was validated using stem cell-derived RPE from a healthy donor. Its effectiveness was then tested by comparing iPSC-RPE derived from healthy donors with iPSC-RPE from donors with oculocutaneous albinism disorder and with clinical-grade stem cell-derived RPE from donors with AMD.

In particular, the AI-based image analysis method accurately detected known markers of RPE maturity and function: transepithelial resistance, a measure of the junctions between neighboring RPE; and secretion of endothelial growth factors. The method also can match a particular iPSC-RPE tissue sample to other samples from the same donor, which helps confirm the identity of tissues during clinical-grade manufacturing.

Multiple AI-methods and advanced hardware allowed us to analyzeterabytesandterabytesof imaging data for each individual patient, and do it more accurately and much faster than in the past, Bajcsy said.

This work demonstrates how a garden variety microscope, if used carefully, can make a precise, reproducible measurement of tissue quality,Simon said.

The work was supported by the NEI Intramural Research Program and the Common Fund Therapeutics Challenge Award. The flow cytometry core, led by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, also contributed to the research.

NEI leads the federal governments research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and clinical science programs to develop sight-saving treatments and address special needs of people with vision loss. For more information, visit https://www.nei.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIHTurning Discovery Into Health

Schaub NJ, Hotaling NA, Manescu P, Padi S, Wan Q, Sharma R, George A, Chalfoun J, Simon M, Ouladi M, Simon CG, Bajcsy P, Bharti K. Deep learning predicts function of live retinal pigment epithelium from quantitative microscopy. In-press preview published online November 14, 2019 in J. Clin. Investigation.


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NIST researchers use artificial intelligence for quality control of stem cell-derived tissues - National Institutes of Health

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International Stem Cell Corporation Announces Financial Results for the Three and Nine-Months ended September 30, 2019 – Associated Press

Press release content from ACCESSWIRE. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.

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CARLSBAD, CA / ACCESSWIRE / November 15, 2019 / International Stem Cell Corporation (OTCQB:ISCO) ( http://www.internationalstemcell.com ) (ISCO or the Company), a California-based clinical stage biotechnology company developing novel stem cell-based therapies and biomedical products, today announced operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019.

As we mentioned before we completed the enrollment of the Phase I Parkinsons disease clinical trial and currently involved in reorganizing our revenue-generating subsidiaries. We expect that we will see positive results of this reorganization next year. - commented Andrey Semechkin, PhD., CEO and Co-Chairman of ISCO.

Year-to-Date Financial Highlights

About International Stem Cell Corporation

International Stem Cell Corporation is focused on the therapeutic applications of human parthenogenetic stem cells (hpSCs) and the development and commercialization of cell-based research and cosmetic products. ISCOs core technology, parthenogenesis, results in the creation of pluripotent human stem cells from unfertilized oocytes (eggs). hpSCs avoid ethical issues associated with the use or destruction of viable human embryos. ISCO scientists have created the first parthenogenetic, homozygous stem cell line that can be a source of therapeutic cells for hundreds of millions of individuals of differing genders, ages and racial background with minimal immune rejection after transplantation. hpSCs offer the potential to create the first true stem cell bank, UniStemCell. ISCO also produces and markets specialized cells and growth media for therapeutic research worldwide through its subsidiary Lifeline Cell Technology ( http://www.lifelinecelltech.com ), and stem cell-based skin care products through its subsidiary Lifeline Skin Care (www.lifelineskincare.com). More information is available at http://www.internationalstemcell.com.

To subscribe to receive ongoing corporate communications, please click on the following link: http://www.b2i.us/irpass.asp?BzID=1468&to=ea&s=0

To like our Facebook page or follow us on Twitter for company updates and industry related news, visit: http://www.facebook.com/InternationalStemCellCorporation and http://www.twitter.com/intlstemcell

Safe Harbor Statement

Statements pertaining to anticipated developments, expected results of clinical studies, progress of research and development, and other opportunities for the company and its subsidiaries, along with other statements about the future expectations, beliefs, goals, plans, or prospects expressed by management constitute forward-looking statements. Any statements that are not historical fact (including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as will, believes, plans, anticipates, expects, estimates,) should also be considered to be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, risks inherent in the development and/or commercialization of potential products, regulatory approvals, need and ability to obtain future capital, application of capital resources among competing uses, and maintenance of intellectual property rights. Actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements and as such should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that affect the companys business, particularly those mentioned in the cautionary statements found in the companys Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The company disclaims any intent or obligation to update forward-looking statements.

International Stem Cell Corporation and Subsidiaries Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (in thousands, except share data and par value) (Unaudited)



Accounts receivable, net

Inventory, net

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

Total current assets

Non-current inventory

Property and equipment, net

Intangible assets, net

Right-of-use assets

Deposits and other assets

Total assets

Liabilities, Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, and Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)

Accounts payable

Accrued liabilities

Operating lease liabilities, current

Related party payable


Warrant liability

Total current liabilities

Long-term deferred rent

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion

Total liabilities

Commitments and Contingencies

Series D Redeemable Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 50 shares authorized, 43 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $4,300 at September 30, 2019

Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)

Series B Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, 250,000

issued and outstanding, with liquidation preferences of $423 and $411 at September 30, 2019 and

December 31, 2018

Series D Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 50 shares authorized, 43 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $4,300 at December 31, 2018

Series G Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $5,000 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Series I-1 Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 2,000 shares authorized, 814 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preferences of $814 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Series I-2 Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 4,310 shares authorized,

issued and outstanding with liquidation preference of $4,310 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 120,000,000 shares authorized, 7,533,083 and 6,933,861 shares

issued and outstanding at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Additional paid-in capital

Accumulated deficit

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders' equity (deficit)

International Stem Cell Corporation and Subsidiaries Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (in thousands, except per share data) (Unaudited)


Product sales

Total revenues


Cost of sales

Research and development

Selling and marketing

General and administrative

Total expenses

Loss from operations

Other income (expense)

Change in fair value of warrant liability

Interest expense

Miscellaneous income

Total other income (expense), net

Net income (loss)

Net income (loss) applicable to common stockholders

Net income (loss) per common share-basic

Net income (loss) per common share-diluted

Weighted average shares-basic

Weighted average shares-diluted


International Stem Cell Corporation

Russell A. Kern, PhD

Phone: 760-940-6383


SOURCE: International Stem Cell CORP

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International Stem Cell Corporation Announces Financial Results for the Three and Nine-Months ended September 30, 2019 - Associated Press

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Leading Alternative Healing Director of Total Health Institute Reviews and Receives 3rd Fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy – Financialbuzz.com

Chicago, IL, Nov. 14, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) Dr. Keith Nemec the clinic director ofTotal Health Institute in Chicago has received yet another fellowship in his advanced research. Most recently Dr. Nemec received his fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy to add to his other fellowships in Regenerative Medicine and Integrative Cancer Therapies.

Dr. Nemec has overseen patient care for the last thirty-five years at Total Health Institute which is an alternative and integrative medical facility. Total Health Institute has seen over 10,000 patients who have traveled from around the world to seek Dr. Nemecs guidance in their healing journey.

Total Health Institute uses unique approach developed by Dr. Nemec called theSystems Sequence Approach to balance cellular communication between the cells, tissues, organs, glands and systems of the body. Dr. Nemec explains It is like knowing the combination to open the lock to complete healing. To open this lock, you must not only know the right systems to balance but also in the right sequence.

Dr. Keith Nemec is very excited about the research in stem cells and stem cell therapy that is why he focused his concentration in this area. According to Dr. Nemec All health and healing starts at the stem cell level. Whether a person has cancer, autoimmune disease or chronic diseases of aging they are all involving stem cells. In cancer, an inflammatory environment has mutated a normal stem cell into a cancer stem cell which is not killed with either chemotherapy nor radiation. This is why many times with conventional cancer treatment alone one tends to see improvements for a season but then return the cancer stem cell retaliates with a vengeance. Dr. Nemec also states Since all cells come from a base stem cell then the answer to all chronic disease can be found in activating the stem cells to produce an anti-inflammatory niche and continual healthy cell renewal.

Dr. Nemec is a member of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine which is the largest and most prestigious group of Regenerative and Anti-Aging Medicine doctors in the world. He received his masters degree in Nutritional Medicine from Morsani College of Medicine. He has also published 5 books including: The Perfect Diet, The Environment of Health and Disease, Seven Basic Steps to Total Health and Total Health = Wholeness. Dr. Nemec has also published numerous health articles including: The Single Unifying Cause of All Disease and The answer to cancer is found in the stem cell and for 18 years he hosted the radio show Your Total Health in Chicago AM1160.

Total Health Institute boasts all 5 starreviews on RateMDs, an A+ rating onBBBand is top rated on Manta.

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Leading Alternative Healing Director of Total Health Institute Reviews and Receives 3rd Fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy - Financialbuzz.com

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BREAKTHROUGH: Her vision was getting worse, then animal research made things clear – Speaking of Research

By Justin A. Varholick, Ph.D.

As we grow older theres an impending fear that we will slowly, but surely, begin to lose our vision. This slow loss of vision is clinically dubbed low vision and impacts more than 39 million Americans, costs $68 billion annually in direct health care costs, and is only growing in our population as baby boomers enter the at-risk age of 65 and older. Magnifiers can often be used to help people with acute issues of low vision, but are often inconvenient and frustrating. More serious issues of low vision such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy require advanced treatment and surgery. For example, cataracts can be improved or reversed by removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial one. Such surgeries are not always ideal, or convenient, and further contribute to the already hefty direct health care costs. But, a recent breakthrough by Japanese scientists, in correcting blurry vision, might reverse this bleak future.

Old cells can become new againOur story begins around the mid-20th century, in 1958. A young and aspiring scientist, named John Gurdon, was studying frogs at the University of Oxford in England. Not everyone thought Gurdon would end up actually becoming a scientist. In his early days his school master thought such a career was far-fetched for Gurdon. Indeed, he ranked last in his Biology class out of 250 students. Yet despite such poor grades, Gurdon found himself studying frogs at Oxford and earning a doctoral degree in Biology. And his studies would surprisingly lead to a breakthrough in vision, and likely many other issues in human health, like Parkinsons Disease, heart disease, and spinal cord injury.

At the time Gurdon was trying to test an age-old theory on cell development. Many scientists before him discovered that cells the smallest unit of life begin without a clear fate in the early stages of an embryo. Then as the cell develops, their fate becomes more clear. They become cells of the heart, of the brain, the kidneys, the stomach, the spinal cord, or the eyes. But they cannot go back to a time when they had no fate, or specialization. The cells can only develop in one direction, from no destiny, to a clear path, then to a mature adult cell; like one found in the heart. But you just cant take a heart cell and start the process over, maybe turning it into a brain cell.

In disagreement with this theory, Gurdon did a simple experiment. He knew that a tadpole has more adult cells than a frog egg. A tadpole has gills, a heart, eyes, etc., while a frog egg simply does not. So, he cut open the tadpole and removed a single cell from the intestine; an intestinal cell. He then cut open the intestinal cell and removed its nucleus; the seed of the cell carrying all the DNA. Very carefully, he did the same with the frog egg, and finally replaced the nucleus of the frog egg with the nucleus of the intestinal cell. According to the age-old theory, the intestinal nucleus should stop normal development of the frog egg. But thats not what happened.

Instead, the new frog egg continued to develop normally, becoming a tadpole that later became an adult frog. Gurdon thought this was unbelievably odd, and so did everyone else in science. After many more experiments doing the exact same procedure (i.e., replication), it seemed that what he saw was a real, replicable fact. For some reason the nucleus of the intestinal cell was able to reverse itself to have no fate and slowly develop into any other adult cell. The seed from the intestine somehow could become the seed of a heart, brain, kidney, or even an eye cell and of course, an intestinal cell too.

After many more experiments testing the same theory, on many more animals, it seemed the theory was true, but it just didnt work for mammals. Given that the same effect could not be repeated in a mammal, some believed this discovery did not apply to humans. But they were wrong.

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cellsAlmost 45 years later, around the start of the millennium, Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi began running experiments that would translate Gurdons findings to humans. Born after Gurdons findings were already published and well known, Yamanaka and Takahashi grew up in a world in which the fact that old cells can become new again was widely knowna solid foundation for further hypotheses, experiments, and discovery. So, the scientists set out to do what no one had before: turn adult skin cells of mice into new cells without a clear fate.

Yamanaka, the lead investigator of the study, shared a similar early history with Gurdon. He first became a medical doctor in Japan but was frustrated by his inability to quickly remove small human tumors taking over an hour rather than the typical 10 minutes. Senior doctors gave him the nickname Jamanaka, a Japanese pun for the word jama meaning obstacle. He then found himself earning a PhD in pharmacology and becoming a post-doctoral scientist, but spent more time caring for mice than doing actual research. Frustrated again, his wife suggested he just become a practicing physician. Despite her advice, Yamanaka applied to become an Assistant Professor at Nara Institute of Science and Technology, in Japan, and won everyone over with his fantastical ideas of investigating embryonic stem cells; the cells without a clear fate.

Then the persistence paid off when Yamanaka with his assistant, Takahashi discovered how to induce adult skin cells from mice to return to an embryonic, or stem cell, state without a clear fate. They began their experiments knowing that gene transcription factors proteins that turn genes on and off were responsible for keeping embryonic cells in a state without a clear fate. They thought that by turning specific genes on and off with these factors, they could turn back time and make an adult cell embryonic again. So, they tried many different combinations of gene transcription factors and ultimately discovered that 4 specific ones were enough to induce an adult skin cell to a mouse to become an embryonic cell. Because these re-newed embryonic cells, or stem cells, originally came from adult cells they came up with a new name, induced pluripotent stem cell. Broken down, induced pluripotent stem cells means that the cell was induced to become pluripotent pluri meaning several, like plural, and potent meaning very powerful (and stem meaning to have the ability to turn into any cell in the body).

These induced pluripotent cells were thought to be very powerful indeed and scientists across the globe were excited by this great discovery. They had visions of taking a persons skin or blood, forming them into induced pluripotent cells, and then using them to grow a new liver or new parts of the brain. Laboratories across the world confirmed the results by repeating the experiment.

Human stem cells Just repeating the experiments in mice, or frogs, was not enough. They needed to begin making induced pluripotent stem cells from humans. Enter scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The lead scientist, James Thomson was already well known for deriving primate embryonic cells from rhesus monkeys in 1995 and the first human embryonic cell line in 1998. In fact, Thomsons accomplishment of isolating embryonic cells from monkeys was the first sound evidence that it was possible to do the same for humans. Such discoveries placed him on the forefront in ethical considerations for research using human embryos and the most obvious scientist to lead the path toward making induced pluripotent stem cells from humans.

Thomsons team made the first human derived induced pluripotent stem cells from adult skin, with Yamanaka as a co-scientist. They followed the same general principles set by Yamanaka, who did the procedure with mouse skin cells. Importantly to Thomson, this discovery helped to relieve some ethical controversy with using human embryos to make human stem cells. By being able to induce adult human skin to become pluripotent stem cells, much research on human stem cells could be done without human embryos albeit research with human embryos remains necessary.

Yet more important to the discussion at hand, the ability to induce human skin to become pluripotent stem cells placed us on the edge of a breakthrough. With some clinical trials in humans, the fantasy of growing a new liver, heart, or eye was more a reality than ever before.

The start of human trials In 2012, around the time both Gurdon and Yamanaka were presented with the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their work leading to induced pluripotent stem cells, human clinical trials were beginning in Japan. The first clinical trial was for age-related macular degeneration, an eye condition leading to blindness. Unfortunately, this trial was quickly terminated when Yamanaka and his team identified small gene mutations in the transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells from the first patient. Although the procedure did cure the patient of macular degeneration, these small gene mutations worried the scientists because they could lead to tumor development.

But recently with the introduction of an inducible suicide gene that can signal cells with abnormal growth to die, human trials are starting up again. In October of 2018, Japanese scientists began trials with Parkinsons disease, a brain disease related to a shortage of neurons producing dopamine. Scientists took cells from the patients, made them into induced pluripotent stem cells, guided them to develop into dopamine producing cells, and then deposited them in the dopamine centers of the brain through surgery. The outcome is promising since similar procedures in monkeys have been successful.

Other trials in Japan have also started, including spinal cord injury and one for replacing the cornea of the eye. Early results replacing damaged corneas with induced pluripotent stem cells, thereby correcting blurry vision, were just announced at the end of August. Although it will take more patients and safety checks before all humans can get induced pluripotent cells to correct their damaged eyes, malfunctioning brains, or broken spinal cords, Takahashi the post-doctoral scientist working with Yamanaka thinks it might happen as early as 2023. So, it looks like that in our lifetime we just might be able to stay young and enjoy retirement because of great breakthroughs in animal research.Note, EuroStemCell is a great resource for learning more about the ethics and research currently being done with stem cells derived from human embryos.

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BREAKTHROUGH: Her vision was getting worse, then animal research made things clear - Speaking of Research

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Research Roundup: New Molecule Slows Broad Range of Cancer Types and More – BioSpace

Every week there are numerous scientific studies published. Heres a look at some of the more interesting ones.

Glutamine Blocker Slows Cancer Growth

Researchers at Johns Hopkins developed a molecule that blocks glutamine metabolism. In their studies, they found that this slowed tumor growth, changed the tumor microenvironment, and promoted production of high-active anti-tumor T-cells. They believe it could be used across a wide spectrum of cancer types.

By targeting glutamine metabolism, we were not only able to inhibit tumor growth and change the tumor microenvironment, but also alter the T-cells in a way that we markedly enhanced immunotherapy for cancer, said Jonathan Powell, associate director of the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. In the beginning, our thought was that if we could target tumor metabolism, we could achieve two goals: slow tumor growth and alter the tumor microenvironment.

The compound, JHU083, in mice, significantly decreased tumor growth and improved survival in a number of different cancer models. They also experimented on using JHU083 and a checkpoint inhibitor. Initially, we thought we would need to use the two therapies sequentially in order to avoid any potential impact of the metabolic therapy on the immunotherapy, Powell said. Remarkably, however, it turned out that the combined treatment worked best when we gave them simultaneously. We found that JHU083 was having a very positive, very direct effect on the immune cells, and we had to investigate why.

Most Foods in the US are Deemed Hyper-Palatable

Although many nutritionists and researchers have dubbed a class of foods hyper-palatable, which typically means a combination of fat, sugar, carbohydrates and sodium, there has been no specific guidelines for that class of food. Researchers published an article in Obesity that offers specific metrics to qualify hyper-palatable, and found that most foods in the U.S. met those criteria. What this means is that much of the food eaten in the U.S. is designed by food companies to light up your brain-reward neural circuit and overwhelm natural brain mechanisms to signal when weve had enough to eat.

Protein Appears Protective Against Type 2 Diabetes

Adipsin is a protein produced in body fat. It seems to protect pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, from destruction in type 2 diabetes. In a study of middle-aged adults, higher levels of adipsin was associated with protection from type 2 diabetes. Adipsin appears to activate a molecule called C3a, which protects and support function of beta cells. C3a also suppresses an enzyme called Dusp26 that can damage and kill beta cells. By directly blocking DUSP26 in human beta cells, the researchers found it protected the beta cells from death.

Surprising Insight into Parkinsons Disease

Researchers with Rockefeller University discovered something completely unexpectedthe affected neurons in Parkinsons may not be dead. They found they may shut down without dying and these undead neurons release molecules that shut down neighboring brain cells, which leads to the common Parkinsons symptoms. The research focused on the function of a Parkinsons protein called SATB1 in dopamine-producing neurons. SATB1s activity is decreased in Parkinsons disease. The researchers grew human stem cells into dopamine neurons in a petri dish. They then silenced the gene for SATB1.

What they found was that the neurons without SATB1 released molecules that cause inflammation and eventually senescence in neighboring neurons. The cells also showed other abnormalities, including damaged mitochondria and enlarged nuclei. None of those changes were observed in dopamine neurons with intact SATB1 or in a separate group of non-dopamine neurons without SATB1. They concluded that the senescent pathways were specific to dopamine neurons.

The Role of Enzymes in Antibiotic Synthesis

Researchers at McGill University were able to develop a technique to take ultra-high resolution 3D images of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). NRPSs synthesize a broad range of antibiotics, as well as molecules to fight viral infections and cancers. They discovered significantly new information about how the NRPSs work, which may lead to the production of new antibiotics.

Oxygen Deficiency Reprograms Mitochondria

The mitochondria are the energy engines of the cell. They burn oxygen and provide energy. Researchers discovered that mitochondria, under low oxygen and nutrient conditions, are rewired to use glycolysis, where sugar is fermented without oxygen. These conditions are common in cancers. The researchers identified a new signaling pathway, which may have implications for pancreatic cancer and other tumors.

Using Anthrax to Fight Bladder Cancer

Researchers at Purdue University have developed a combination of the anthrax toxin with a growth factor to kill bladder cancer cells and tumors. Bladder has a protective layer that prevents the anthrax cells from getting through, but with the addition of the growth factor, the anthrax toxin killed cancer cells within minutes without harming the normal bladder cells. The research was tested in dogs with bladder cancer who had no other treatment options. The treatment decreased the tumor size without causing any other side effects.

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Research Roundup: New Molecule Slows Broad Range of Cancer Types and More - BioSpace

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