The major life-threatening symptoms of COVID-19 disease are the result of the dysregulation of the immune system, wherein the cascading release of cytokines, termed a cytokine storm, induces severe inflammation.
In past studies, stem cells have demonstrated immune-modulating properties, with the capacity to suppress T-cells, prevent the maturation of dendritic cells, lessen B-cell activation and proliferation, and inhibit the proliferation and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells.
Stem cell therapy has also been employed against viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B, and virus-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a leading mortality factor in those with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
In a review paper recently uploaded to the journal Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy by Mahendiratta et al. (May 2021) the applicability of stem cells in treating severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is investigated, with regard to ARDS therapy.
Stem cells interact with their surroundings via toll-like receptors on the cell's surface. When a virus interacts with these receptors, specific chemokines are released, resulting in an anti-inflammatory response.
Interaction of the toll-like receptors with inflammatory cytokines has also been suggested to result in the release of anti-inflammatory chemokines and soluble factors from stem cells, including nitric oxide, which induces cell cycle arrest of T-cells by repressing phosphorylation.
As the genome of the other significant coronaviruses besides SARS-CoV-2: SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, are generally similar, generate corresponding proteins, have a parallel mechanism of cell entry and replication, and result in the release of homologous pro-inflammatory cytokines, the group included these viruses in their literature review alongside SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS and in association with stem cell therapy.
Several in vitro studies into stem cell therapy for ARDS were examined, demonstrating enhanced wound healing, neutrophil migration or elimination, and restored permeability of pulmonary endothelial cells.
These studies demonstrate the potential value of stem cell therapy in the treatment of ARDS. However, the group could not find any relevant studies that specifically involved any of the coronaviruses of interest.
The in vivo studies reviewed by the group cover a much wider range of potential stem cell therapies, from vaccine platforms to inflammation attenuation by a range of mechanisms.
As a vaccine delivery vehicle, stem cells were programmed to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, resulting in neutralizing antibody production not only against the spike protein but also the nucleocapsid protein. Stem cells have also been demonstrated to alleviate E. coli induced pneumonia via suppressed inflammation, improved arterial oxygenation, and reduction of bacterial load in rats.
Human trials that utilize stem cells against SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS are scarce, though the group sourced eleven that fit their search criteria and an additional 41 registered to begin. Among these most included critically ill COVID-19 patients that had developed ARDS, and preliminary results appear promising.
In one study, mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into a patient intravenously with no adverse reactions, the individual then exhibiting increased oxygen saturation and a reduction in fever, testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 thirteen days after transplantation.
A decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and a correlating upregulation in anti-inflammatory signaling molecules was also observed. Other studies show similar results: an improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of those with ARDS, a reduction in neutrophil levels, alleviation of the cytokine storm, and normalization of T-cell counts.
These studies highlight the range and diversity of mechanisms utilized by stem cells to regenerate tissue, particularly in the restoration of lung function.
Many safety concerns regarding the use of stem cells are still in question, however, and in each of the above reviewed cases were only applied to critically ill patients that were unresponsive to conventional therapy.
Large and wide-scale clinical trials will be needed to properly assess the safety profile and applicability of stem cells to those with SARS-CoV-2, though combination with traditional antiviral treatments may prove a highly effective therapeutic strategy.
- More than 800 medicines are in development for diseases that disproportionately affect racial and ethnic communities - Yahoo Finance - June 22nd, 2021
- New Therapeutic Drugs for Tendinitis Treatment Coming Down - GlobeNewswire - June 22nd, 2021
- Updates in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphomas | JEP - Dove Medical Press - June 22nd, 2021
- Stanford spinout Jasper Therapeutics inks deal with Aruvant to unlock new fix for sickle cell disease - San Francisco Business Times - San Francisco... - June 22nd, 2021
- Presence of certain stem cells linked to nongenetic resistance mechanisms of cancer cells - News-Medical.Net - June 20th, 2021
- Stem cell transplant boost for Tyrone man facing third battle with cancer as brother is a match - Belfast Telegraph - June 20th, 2021
- Theres always a way forward: Crunchtime for Mesoblast as legal threats loom - Sydney Morning Herald - June 20th, 2021
- Covid-19 treatment: Insurers silent on no cover for new therapies - BusinessLine - June 20th, 2021
- Cell therapies without cells? - Lexology - June 16th, 2021
- 'Impressive Results' With CAR T-cell in R/R Follicular Lymphoma - Medscape - June 16th, 2021
- ThermoGenesis : Cell Processing Technologies That Revolutionized the Cell and Gene Therapy Industry - Marketscreener.com - June 16th, 2021
- Good Response to COVID-19 Vaccine After HSCT and CAR T-cell Tx - Medscape - June 16th, 2021
- Citius Pharmaceuticals Expands Scientific Advisory Board with Addition of Dr. John Laffey, Expert in Stem Cell and Gene Therapies for ARDS -... - June 16th, 2021
- What Drives a Liver Cell To Be a Liver Cell? - Technology Networks - June 16th, 2021
- Dr. Martin on the Rationale to Evaluate Real-World Outcomes in MCL - OncLive - June 16th, 2021
- Bispecific Antibodies Wage a Two-Pronged Attack on Tumors - Curetoday.com - June 16th, 2021
- Maintenance With Rituximab for MCL Prolongs Time to Next Treatment - Cancer Network - June 16th, 2021
- Daratumumab Demonstrates Benefit to Overall Survival for Certain Patients with Multiple Myeloma - Pharmacy Times - June 16th, 2021
- Global Cell Isolation Market Research Report 2021: Rising Demand for Drugs, Vaccines and Other Related Products - Forecast to 2027 - PRNewswire - June 16th, 2021
- Regardless of Prior Anti-CD20 Therapy, Axi-Cel induces Durable Antitumor Activity in FL and MZL - Cancer Network - June 16th, 2021
- Harbour BioMed and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Collaborate to Advance Novel Biotherapies for Cancer Treatment - BioSpace - June 16th, 2021
- UCF 25th Among Public Universities in the Nation and 60th in the World for Producing Patents - UCF - June 16th, 2021
- Real-world analysis of patient characteristics, treatment outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization across Europe in patients with newly diagnosed... - June 14th, 2021
- San Diego Academy of Regenerative Therapies (SDARTs) 4th Global Conference Spotlights Regenerative Stem Cell Treatments for Hair Restoration -... - June 14th, 2021
- Omeros announces data for narsoplimab in pivotal trial for rare disease linked to stem cell transplantation - Seeking Alpha - June 14th, 2021
- Discrepancies Exist Between Actual Care and Trial-Based Recommendations in MCL - www.oncnursingnews.com/ - June 14th, 2021
- Debiopharm's CD37 Antibody Drug Conjugate Shows Promising Phase II Results for the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies - BioSpace - June 14th, 2021
- Rituximab Maintenance Improves Time-to-Next Treatment and OS in Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma - Targeted Oncology - June 14th, 2021
- ViaCyte Announces Closing of $45 Million Financing to Advance Broadest Portfolio of Stem Cell-Derived Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes - BioSpace - June 13th, 2021
- Living Therapeutics Initiative Will Accelerate Development and Delivery of Revolutionary Treatments - UCSF News Services - June 13th, 2021
- Fundraising run will help MS sufferer fund far-reaching stem cell treatment in Mexico - Shetland Times Online - June 13th, 2021
- Heartseed Raises $37 Million in Series C Funding to Accelerate Development of iPSC-derived Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Failure - Business Wire - June 13th, 2021
- AI Predicts How Patients with Viral Infections, Including COVID-19, Will Fare - UC San Diego Health - June 13th, 2021
- Tisagenlecleucel Appears Effective in Babies With Advanced B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia - Cancer Therapy Advisor - June 13th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Identifies Synergy Between ImmCelz Regenerative Immunotherapy and Myeloid Suppressor Cells in Treatment of Type 1... - June 13th, 2021
- Stem Cells and Liver Cancer Laboratory Head Job at Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne, Australia - The Conversation AU - June 13th, 2021
- Real-World Treatment Reveals Discrepancy Between Actual Care and Clinical Trial Recommendations in MCL - OncLive - June 13th, 2021
- CBMG Holdings' Novel Anti-CD20 CAR-T Cell Therapy Shows Promising Safety and Efficacy in Relapsed/Refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients... - June 13th, 2021
- Naratuximab Emtansine With Rituximab Leads to Durable Responses in R/R DLBCL - Targeted Oncology - June 13th, 2021
- HSCT-Sparing, Chemotherapy-Free Treatment of Ph+ ALL With Ponatinib/Blinatumomab Leads to 100% CR Rate - Cancer Network - June 5th, 2021
- Magenta Therapeutics (MGTA) Announces Additional Preliminary Positive Results from Ongoing Phase 2 Clinical Trial of MGTA-145 and Plerixafor in... - June 5th, 2021
- Innovative Regenerative Medicine Therapies Safety Comes First - FDA.gov - June 5th, 2021
- You could be the match: Miracle blood stem cell donor saves young fathers life - WWBT NBC12 News - June 5th, 2021
- Study shows how the physical nature of genome changes before and after cell differentiation - News-Medical.net - June 5th, 2021
- Polatuzumab With Rituximab and Lenalidomide Shown Safe and Effective for Relapsed/Refractory DLBCL - Targeted Oncology - June 5th, 2021
- Lymph nodes: Purpose, location, and disease warning signs - Medical News Today - June 5th, 2021
- Dr. Ghosh on the Role of Off-the-Shelf CAR T-Cell Therapy in Myeloma June - OncLive - June 5th, 2021
- In Some Heavily Pretreated Patients with R/R MM Ide-Cel Continues to Show Deep and Durable Responses - Targeted Oncology - June 5th, 2021
- Fate Therapeutics Highlights Positive Interim Data from its Phase 1 Study of FT516 in Combination with - GlobeNewswire - June 5th, 2021
- High Overall Response Rates Achieved With Cirmtuzumab/Ibrutinib in MCL and CLL - Targeted Oncology - June 5th, 2021
- Stem Cell vs Gene Therapy Processes in SCD - MD Magazine - May 26th, 2021
- Regenerative Medicine Market Size to Reach Revenues of over USD 27 Billion by 2026 - Arizton - PRNewswire - May 26th, 2021
- Meso-Brain project explores 3D printed stem cells to treat neurological conditions - 3D Printing Industry - May 26th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Expands Neurological Application of ImmCelz into Parkinson's Disease - PRNewswire - May 26th, 2021
- Citius Pharmaceuticals Selected to Receive Best Poster Award at the International Society for Cell and Gene Therapy 2021 Annual Meeting - PRNewswire - May 26th, 2021
- Senti Bio and BlueRock Therapeutics Enter Collaboration to Develop Gene Circuit-Engineered Cell Therapies for Regenerative Medicine | More News | News... - May 26th, 2021
- 3D Printed Stem Cells Could Revolutionize Neuroscience, Aid Treatment and Understanding of Neural Diseases - Science Times - May 26th, 2021
- 'Lion-hearted' ten-year-old Aurora's 'second chance' at life after cancer remission and stem cell transplant - The Isle of Thanet News - May 26th, 2021
- Miami Cancer Institute Achieves 'Summit' With Experts Who Share Advances in Treating Hematologic Malignancies - Baptist Health South Florida - May 26th, 2021
- Jasper Therapeutics Announces New Clinical Trial with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to Evaluate JSP191 in Chronic... - May 26th, 2021
- Autolus Therapeutics Announces an Additional Nature Publication for AUTO1 - GlobeNewswire - May 26th, 2021
- I Peace's cell manufacturing facility "Peace Engine Kyoto" receives third-party certification as US cGMP compliant: the facility now meets... - May 26th, 2021
- New DLBCL Treatments Are Poised to Fill an Unmet Need for Patients in Challenging Settings - OncLive - May 26th, 2021
- Monitoring the potency of cell therapies using bioelectronic assays - Drug Target Review - May 24th, 2021
- Global Cell Therapy Markets, Technologies, and Competitive Landscape Report 2020-2030: Applications, Cardiovascular Disorders, Cancer, Neurological... - May 24th, 2021
- Stemedica Signs License Agreement with Pulthera, LLC for all Respiratory Indications including those related to COVID-19 - BioSpace - May 24th, 2021
- bluebird bio's CALD gene therapy Skysona gains positive opinion from CHMP - PMLiVE - May 24th, 2021
- An Incurable Disease With A Hefty Treatment Cost Motivated Him To Start A Business - Forbes - May 24th, 2021
- Research Highlights from 2021 ACSM Virtual Annual Meeting: Exercise in Regenerative Medicine - Newswise - May 24th, 2021
- Five-year-old boy returns home after first round of cancer treatment in New York - Cambridgeshire Live - May 24th, 2021
- Exploring the Potential of Stem Cell Therapies in Alzheimer's Treatment - Being Patient - May 20th, 2021
- Beware stem-cell interventions, orthopaedic surgeons warn - Times of Malta - May 20th, 2021
- Citius Pharmaceuticals to Feature Updated Positive Interim Results of i-MSC Study During Poster Presentation at International Society for Cell and... - May 20th, 2021
- Bayer's BlueRock Therapeutics widens cell therapy scope to the eye under new pact - MedCity News - May 20th, 2021
- Regenerative Medicine Market - Increasing Demand of Personalized Medicines and the Advancements in Technology Drive the Market | TMR Research Study -... - May 20th, 2021
- Jasper Therapeutics Announces Updated 90-day Data from Phase 1 Clinical Trial of JSP191 as Targeted Stem Cell Conditioning Agent in Older Patients... - May 20th, 2021
- Seres Therapeutics to Present Clinical Research on the Microbiome's Impact on Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cancer... - May 20th, 2021
- Richard Stone, MD, on Updates in the Treatment of High-Risk AML - Oncology Learning Network - May 20th, 2021
- Overview of Antabuse (Disulfiram) in Radiation and Cancer Biology | CMAR - Dove Medical Press - May 20th, 2021
- 'Experimental' Stem Cell Therapies Being Marketed To Vulnerable People In Malta, Surgeons Warn - Lovin Malta - May 20th, 2021