While some researchers still claim that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) offer the best hope for treating many debilitating diseases, there is now a great deal of evidence contrary to that theory. Use of stem cells obtained by destroying human embryos is not only unethical but presents many practical obstacles as well.
"Major roadblocks remain before human embryonic stem cells could be transplanted into humans to cure diseases or replace injured body parts, a research pioneer said Thursday night. University of Wisconsin scientist James Thomson said obstacles include learning how to grow the cells into all types of organs and tissue and then making sure cancer and other defects are not introduced during the transplantation. 'I don't want to sound too pessimistic because this is all doable, but it's going to be very hard,' Thomson told the Wisconsin Newspaper Association's annual convention at the Kalahari Resort in this Wisconsin Dells town. 'Ultimately, those transplation therapies should work but it's likely to take a long time.'....Thomson cautioned such breakthroughs are likely decades away."
-Associated Press reporter Ryan J. Foley "Stem cell pioneer warns of roadblocks before cures," San Jose Mercury News Online, posted on Feb. 8, 2007, http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/16656570.htm
"Although embryonic stem cells have the broadest differentiation potential, their use for cellular therapeutics is excluded for several reasons: the uncontrollable development of teratomas in a syngeneic transplantation model, imprinting-related developmental abnormalities, and ethical issues."
-Gesine Kgler et al., "A New Human Somatic Stem Cell from Placental Cord Blood with Intrinsic Pluripotent Differentiation Potential," Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 200, No. 2 (July 19, 2004), p. 123.
From a major foundation promoting research in pancreatic islet cells and other avenues for curing juvenile diabetes:
"Is the use of embryonic stem cells close to being used to provide a supply of islet cells for transplantation into humans?
"No. The field of embryonic stem cells faces enormous hurtles to overcome before these cells can be used in humans. The two key challenges to overcome are making the stem cells differentiate into specific viable cells consistently, and controlling against unchecked cell division once transplanted. Solid data of stable, functioning islet cells from embryonic stems cells in animals has not been seen."
-"Q & A," Autoimmune Disease Research Foundation, http://www.cureautoimmunity.org/Q%20&%20A.htm, accessed July 2004.
"'I think the chance of doing repairs to Alzheimer's brains by putting in stem cells is small,' said stem cell researcher Michael Shelanski, co-director of the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain at the Columbia University Medical Center in New York, echoing many other experts. 'I personally think we're going to get other therapies for Alzheimer's a lot sooner.'...
"[G]iven the lack of any serious suggestion that stem cells themselves have practical potential to treat Alzheimer's, the Reagan-inspired tidal wave of enthusiasm stands as an example of how easily a modest line of scientific inquiry can grow in the public mind to mythological proportions.
"It is a distortion that some admit is not being aggressively corrected by scientists.
"'To start with, people need a fairy tale,' said Ronald D.G. McKay, a stem cell researcher at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 'Maybe that's unfair, but they need a story line that's relatively simple to understand.'"
-Rick Weiss, "Stem Cells an Unlikely Therapy for Alzheimer's," Washington Post, June 10, 2004, p. A3.
"ES [embryonic stem] cells and their derivatives carry the same likelihood of immune rejection as a transplanted organ because, like all cells, they carry the surface proteins, or antigens, by which the immune system recognizes invaders. Hundreds of combinations of different types of antigens are possible, meaning that hundreds of thousands of ES cell lines might be needed to establish a bank of cells with immune matches for most potential patients. Creating that many lines could require millions of discarded embryos from IVF clinics."
-R. Lanza and N. Rosenthal, "The Stem Cell Challenge," Scientific American, June 2004, pp. 92-99 at p. 94. [Editor's note: A recent study found that only 11,000 frozen embryos are available for research use from all the fertility clinics in the U.S., and that destroying all these embryos for their stem cells might produce a total of 275 cell lines. See Fertility and Sterility, May 2003, pp. 1063-9 at p. 1068.]
"Embryonic stem cells have too many limitations, including immune rejection and the potential to form tumors, to ever achieve acceptance in our lifetime. By that time, umbilical cord blood stem cells will have been shown to be a true 'gift from the gods.'"
-Dr. Roger Markwald, Professor and Chair of Cell Biology and Anatomy at the Medical University of South Carolina, quoted in "CureSource Issues Statement on Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells vs. Embryonic Stem Cells," BusinessWire, May 12, 2004, also at http://curesource.net/why.html.
"'We're not against stem-cell research of any kind,' said [Tulane University research professor Brian] Butcher. 'But we think there are advantages to using adult stem cells. For example, with embryonic stem cells, a significant number become cancer cells, so the cure could be worse than the disease. And they can be very difficult to grow, while adult stem cells are easy to grow.'"
-Heather Heilman, "Great Transformations," The Tulanian (Spring 2004 issue), at http://www2.tulane.edu/article_news_details.cfm?ArticleID=5155.
"There are still many hurdles to clear before embryonic stem cells can be used therapeutically. For example, because undifferentiated embryonic stem cells can form tumors after transplantation in histocompatible animals, it is important to determine an appropriate state of differentiation before transplantation. Differentiation protocols for many cell types have yet to be established. Targeting the differentiated cells to the appropriate organ and the appropriate part of the organ is also a challenge."
-E. Phimister and J. Drazen, "Two Fillips for Human Embryonic Stem Cells," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 350 (March 25, 2004), pp. 1351-2 at 1351.
Harvard researchers, trying to create human embryonic stem cell lines that are more clinically useful than those now available, find that their new cell lines are already genetically abnormal:
"After prolonged culture, we observed karyotypic changes involving trisomy of chromosome 12..., as well as other changes... These karyotypic abnormalities are accompanied by a proliferative advantage and a noticeable shortening in the population doubling time. Chromosomal abnormalities are commonplace in human embryonal carcinoma cell lines and in mouse embryonic stem-cell lines and have recently been reported in human embryonic stem-cell lines."
-C. Cowan et al., "Derivation of Embryonic Stem-Cell Lines from Human Blastocysts," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 350 (March 25, 2004), pp. 1353-6 at 1355.
"[Johns Hopkins University] biologist Michael Shamblott said...major scientific hurdles await anybody wishing to offer a treatment, let alone a cure, based on cells culled from embryos.
"Among the major obstacles is the difficulty of getting embryonic stem cells master cells that generate every tissue in the human body to become exactly the type of cell one wants... Scientists...haven't been able to guarantee purity cells, for instance, that are destined to become muscle cells and nothing else...
"Transplanting a mixed population of cells could cause the growth of unwanted tissues. The worst case could see stem cells morphing into teratomas, particularly gruesome tumors that can contain hair, teeth and other body parts.
"Another issue is timing... Stem cells pass through many intermediate stages before they become intermediate cells such as motor neurons or pancreatic or heart cells. Deciding when to transplant remains an open question, and the answer might differ from disease to disease.
"...In tackling Lou Gehrig's disease, [Johns Hopkins neurologist Dr. Jeffrey] Rothstein figured that cells that haven't committed themselves to becoming motor neurons would stand the best chance, once implanted, of reaching out and connecting with the cells that surround them. What he found, however, is that these immature cells didn't develop much once transplanted into lab animals."
-Jonathan Bor, "Stem Cells: A long road ahead," Baltimore Sun, March 8, 2004, p. 12A.
"Tony Blau, a stem-cell researcher at the University of Washington, said it is 'extremely laborious' to keep embryonic cells growing, well-nourished and stable in the lab so they don't die or turn into a cell type with less potential. Researchers need to know how to channel the stem cells to create a specific kind of cell, how to test whether they're pure, and how to develop drugs that could serve as a sort of antidote in case infused stem cells started creating something dangerous, such as cancer.
"Big companies, Blau said, want to know that their drugs will be almost completely stable, standard, pure and consistent, because they can behave differently if they aren't. Stem cells never will achieve that kind of standardization, Blau said, because living cells are more complex than chemically synthesized drugs."
-Luke Timmerman, "Stem-cell research still an embryonic business," Seattle Times, Business & Technology section, February 22, 2004, at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2001862747_stemcells22.html.
"[W]ithin the ESC research community, realism has overtaken early euphoria as scientists realize the difficulty of harnessing ESCs safely and effectively for clinical applications. After earlier papers in 2000 and 2001 identified some possibilities, research continued to highlight the tasks that lie ahead in steering cell differentiation and avoiding side effects, such as immune rejection and tumorigenesis."
-Philip Hunter, "Differentiating Hope from Embryonic Stem Cells," The Scientist, Vol. 17, Issue 34 (December 15, 2003), at http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/dec/hot_031215.html.
"Long-term culture of mouse ES [embryonic stem] cells can lead to a decrease in pluripotency and the gain of distinct chromosomal abnormalities. Here we show that similar chromosomal changes, which resemble those observed in hEC [human embryonal carcinoma] cells from testicular cancer, can occur in hES [human embryonic stem] cells.... The occurrence and potential detrimental effects of such karyotopic changes will need to be considered in the development of hES cell-based transplantation therapies."
-J. Draper et al., "Recurrent gain of chromosomes 17q and 12 in cultured human embryonic stem cells," Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 22 (2003), pp. 53-4.
"James A. Thompson of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and his colleagues managed to isolate and culture the first human embryonic stem cells in 1997. Five years later, big scientific questions remain. [Harvard embryonic stem cell researcher Doug] Melton and his colleagues, for instance, don't yet know how to instruct the totipotent stem cells to become the specific cells missing in a diabetic person, the pancreatic beta cell.
"'Normally, if you take an embryonic stem cell, it will make all kinds of things, sort of willy-nilly,' says Melton."
-J. Mitchell, "Stem Cells 101," PBS Scientific American Frontiers, May 28, 2002, http://www.pbs.org/saf/1209/features/stemcell.htm.
"Unlike stem cells isolated from the embryo, [adult stem cells] do not carry the same risks of cancer or uncontrollable growth after transplant, and they can be isolated from patients requiring treatment, thus avoiding all problems of immune rejection and the need for immune suppressive drugs that carry their own risks.
"...Embryonic stem cells are promoted on grounds that they are developmentally more flexible than adult stem cells. But too much flexibility may not be desirable. Transplant of embryonic cells into the brains of Parkinson's patients turned into an irredeemable nightmare because the cells grew uncontrollably. Embryonic stem cells also show genetic instability and carry considerable risks of cancer... When injected under the skin of certain mice, they grow into teratomas, tumors consisting of a jumble of tissue types, from gut to skin to teeth, and the same happens when injected into the brain."
-Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Prof. Joe Cummins on behalf of the Institute of Science in Society (ISIS), "Hushing Up Adult Stem Cells," ISIS report, February 11, 2002, at http://www.i-sis.org.uk/HUASC.php.
"'I even hear from patients whose fathers have lung cancer,' said Dr. Hogan, a professor at Vanderbilt School of Medicine. 'They have a whole slew of problems they think can be treated. They think stem cells are going to cure their loved ones of everything.'
"If it ever happens, it will not happen soon, scientists say. In fact, although they worked with mouse embryonic stem cells for 20 years and made some progress, researchers have not used these cells to cure a single mouse of a disease...
"Scientists say the theory behind stem cells is correct: the cells, in principle, can become any specialized cell of the body. But between theory and therapy lie a host of research obstacles...the obstacles are so serious that scientists say they foresee years, if not decades, of concerted work on basic science before they can even think of trying to treat a patient."
-Gina Kolata, "A Thick Line Between Theory and Therapy, as Shown with Mice," New York Times, December 18, 2001, p. F3.
"Mice cloned from embryonic stem cells may look identical, but many of them actually differ from one another by harboring unique genetic abnormalities, scientists have learned...
"The work also shows for the first time that embryonic stem cells...are surprisingly genetically unstable, at least in mice. If the same is true for human embryonic stem cells, researchers said, then scientists may face unexpected challenges as they try to turn the controversial cells into treatments for various degenerative conditions."
-Rick Weiss, "Clone Study Casts Doubt on Stem Cells," Washington Post, July 6, 2001, p. A1.
"ES cells have plenty of limitations... For one, murine ES cells have a disturbing ability to form tumors, and researchers aren't yet sure how to counteract that. And so far reports of pure cell populations derived from either human or mouse ES cells are few and far between fewer than those from adult stem cells."
-Gretchen Vogel, "Can Adult Stem Cells Suffice?", Science, Vol. 292 (June 8, 2001), pp. 1820-1822 at 1822.
"Rarely have specific growth factors or culture conditions led to establishment of cultures containing a single cell type.... [T]he possibility arises that transplantation of differentiated human ES cell derivatives into human recipients may result in the formation of ES cell-derived tumors... Irrespective of the persistence of stem cells, the possibility for malignant transformation of the derivatives will also need to be addressed."
-J. S. Odorico et al, "Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines," Stem Cells Vol. 19 (2001), pp. 193-204 at 198 and 200, at http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/reprint/19/3/193.pdf.
Here is the original post:
- Global Stem Cell Technologies and Applications Market 2020-2030 - GlobeNewswire - April 16th, 2021
- Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Industry Market 2021 In-depth Industry Analysis, Growth By 2027:Lonza Group Ltd., Life Technologies Corporation,... - April 6th, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2021 Is Rapidly Increasing Worldwide in Near Future | Top Companies Analysis- ESI BIO, Thermo Fisher,... - April 6th, 2021
- Scientists grow and observe mouse embryos outside the womb - ISRAEL21c - April 6th, 2021
- New Michigan law requires those receiving Johnson & Johnson vaccine be told it was developed using stem cells | TheHill - The Hill - April 6th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Latest Innovations and Trends to Boost Growth during 2021-2028 | Astellas Pharma Inc, Cellular Engineering Technologies,... - April 6th, 2021
- Xenobots 2.0 are Here and Still Developed With Frog Stem Cells - Unite.AI - April 6th, 2021
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Exclusive insight on Transformation 2029 SoccerNurds - SoccerNurds - March 29th, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia - March 24th, 2021
- Sydney archbishop urges 'deep breath' after news of artificial embryos - Long Island Catholic - March 24th, 2021
- Researchers grow mouse embryos outside the uterus to reveal hidden growth stages - SlashGear - March 20th, 2021
- Industry Overview of Stem Cell Treatments: Market Report Based on Development, Scope, Share, Trends, Forecast to 2026 SoccerNurds - SoccerNurds - March 15th, 2021
- A Genetic Curse, a Scared Mom, and the Quest to 'Fix' Embryos - WIRED - March 13th, 2021
- Deciphering epiblast lumenogenesis reveals proamniotic cavity control of embryo growth and patterning - Science Advances - March 11th, 2021
- Promising stem-cell based drug for treatment of ALS receives patent - The Jerusalem Post - March 11th, 2021
- Human embryo research beyond the primitive streak - Science Magazine - March 11th, 2021
- Detroit mayor turned down J&J vaccine in favor of others - WCNC.com - March 11th, 2021
- 14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Embryonic Stem Cell ... - March 7th, 2021
- Embryonic stem cell | biology | Britannica - March 7th, 2021
- Is the coronavirus vaccine made from fetal cell lines? - March 7th, 2021
- Effect of Nanog overexpression on the metastatic potential of a mouse melanoma cell line B16-BL6 - DocWire News - March 7th, 2021
- Gene behind third of cancers turned off by scientists - Yahoo Sports - March 3rd, 2021
- Comprehensive Report on Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market 2021 | Size, Growth, Demand, Opportunities & Forecast To 2027 | CellTherapies P/L,... - March 3rd, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2021 Global Industry Size, Reviews, Segments, Revenue, and Forecast to 2027 NeighborWebSJ - NeighborWebSJ - March 1st, 2021
- Innovative Stem Cells Market Research Report Segmented by Applications, Geography, Trends and Projection 2026 Express Keeper - Express Keeper - March 1st, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Industry Market 2021 Overview, Opportunities, In-Depth Analysis by 2027:Lonza Group Ltd., Life Technologies Corporation,... - February 25th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size 2021 | Analysis, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies And Forecast up to 2027 - NY Market Reports - February 25th, 2021
- Global Cell Freezing Media for Cell Therapy Market Size, Analysis, Growth ratio, Top Players and Fut - PharmiWeb.com - February 25th, 2021
- The Very First Signs of an Immune Response Have Been Filmed in a Developing Embryo - ScienceAlert - February 14th, 2021
- Outlook on the Cell Therapy Global Market to 2027 - Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecasts - Yahoo Eurosport UK - February 10th, 2021
- Translational Regenerative Medicine Market: Immunotherapy is projected to be the fastest growing segment during the forecast period - BioSpace - February 10th, 2021
- Study identifies major flaws in iBMEC-based models of the blood-brain barrier - News-Medical.Net - February 10th, 2021
- Harnessing the Potential of Cell and Gene Therapy - OncLive - February 5th, 2021
- When scientific data is too good to be true - Haaretz - February 5th, 2021
- Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market increasing demand with Industry Professionalist |know the Brand Players forecast 2027 Jumbo News - Jumbo... - February 5th, 2021
- Should We Double The Age When Science Can Experiment On Babies? - 550 KTSA - February 5th, 2021
- Push on to Allow Expanded Human-Embryo Research - National Review - February 3rd, 2021
- Missouri State Representative Indicted Over Alleged Stem Cell Therapy Scam - IFLScience - February 3rd, 2021
- ToolGen ties up with 3D bioprinting company to apply induced pluripotent stem cells to gene correction - Aju Business Daily - February 3rd, 2021
- Stem Cells Market is Expected to Thrive at Impressive CAGR by 2025 Murphy's Hockey Law - Murphy's Hockey Law - February 3rd, 2021
- Louisiana Right to Life: COVID-19 vaccines and abortion - The Baptist Message - January 16th, 2021
- Organoids show how mutations in top autism gene may lead to brain overgrowth in people - Spectrum - January 16th, 2021
- Reversing The Aging Clock With Epigenetic Reprogramming - Bio-IT World - January 16th, 2021
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market Report 2020: Market to Recover and Reach $14.76 Billion in 2023 at a CAGR of 19.62% - Forecast to 2030 - Yahoo Finance - January 8th, 2021
- Factor Bioscience spins out a new cell therapy player with eyes on the clinic within 2 years - Endpoints News - January 8th, 2021
- 'He was very honored in his work' - Mercer Island Reporter - December 28th, 2020
- Stem Cell Assay Market In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2017-2025 - NeighborWebSJ - December 25th, 2020
- Israeli biotech firm's ALS treatment shows safety of use in trials - The Jerusalem Post - December 18th, 2020
- Ca Bishops To Work w/ Govt on Vaccination Campaigns - Catholic Herald Online - December 15th, 2020
- Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Market 2019 Global Industry Analysis By Size, Share, Trends and - PharmiWeb.com - December 10th, 2020
- Accelerating Sales in North America to Drive the Stem Cell Therapy market between 2020 and 2030 - Cheshire Media - December 3rd, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market in Global : Current and the Future Trends: Astellas Pharma Inc/ Ocata Therapeutics, Stemcell Technologies Inc - The... - December 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cells Market Size on Target to Reach US$ 17.79 Billion 2027 - Cheshire Media - December 3rd, 2020
- GFI1: New Role Uncovered for a Protein Involved in Hearing : The Hearing Journal - LWW Journals - December 3rd, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2019 | Analyzing The Impact Followed By Restraints, Opportunities And Projected Developments | DataIntelo -... - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cell Manufacturing Market Analysis by Industry Size, Share, Key Drivers, Growth Factors, Demands, Top Manufacturers- Merck Group, Becton,... - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cells Market is Expected to Thrive at Impressive CAGR by 2025 - The Haitian-Caribbean News Network - December 1st, 2020
- This Date in UCSF History: Election Offers Mixed Bag of Results - Synapse - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Report Forecast to 2029 (Includes Business Impact of COVID-19) - Cheshire Media - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cell Assay to Register Substantial Expansion by 2026| Merck, Thermo Fisher Scientific, GE Healthcare - The Haitian-Caribbean News Network - December 1st, 2020
- Autism genes affect development of neurons and glia - Spectrum - November 28th, 2020
- Stem Cell Medical Research to Expand in California Following Passage of Prop. 14 - Times of San Diego - November 28th, 2020
- TRF2-mediated telomere protection is dispensable in pluripotent stem cells - Nature.com - November 26th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Growth and Change - Yahoo Finance UK - November 26th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market 2020: Rising with Immense Development Trends across the Globe by 2027 - The Market Feed - November 26th, 2020
- Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tool Market 2020: Potential growth, attractive valuation make it is a long-term investment | Know the COVID19... - November 26th, 2020
- Global Regenerative Medicine Market 2020-2025: Opportunities with the Implementation of the 21st Century Cures Act - Yahoo Eurosport UK - November 26th, 2020
- Mount Sinai Cardiologist Awarded $2.9 Million NIH Grant to Advance Work with Stem Cells and Heart Repair after Heart Attack - Cath Lab Digest - November 25th, 2020
- Dr. David Steenblock - Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine - BlogTalkRadio - November 25th, 2020
- Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Based Treatment of Heart Disease - The Connecticut College Voice - November 25th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market To Observe Exponential Growth By 2020-2027 | Reports Globe - Cheshire Media - November 25th, 2020
- The Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tools Market to grow incomparably in the next decade - The Market Feed - November 25th, 2020
- University of Alberta research team poised to cure diabetesagain - Wetaskiwin Times Advertiser - November 23rd, 2020
- New Role For Serotonin Identified In The Evolution Of The Developing Brain - Anti Aging News - November 18th, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics Reports Third Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Provides Business Update - Business Wire - November 18th, 2020
- Stem Cell Banking Market is Projected to Reach $6,956 million by 2023 | Leading key players are Cord Blood Registry, ViaCord, Cryo-Cell, China Cord... - November 14th, 2020
- California approves billions for stem-cell research - Modern Healthcare - November 14th, 2020
- Cell Freezing Media for Cell Therapy Market 2020 Strategic Assessment BioLife Solutions, Thermo Fisher Scientific, GE Healthcare - KYT24 - November 14th, 2020
- The heart of a mouse embryo was first created from stem cells - FREE NEWS - November 11th, 2020
- Genetic Mechanism Identified in Neonatal Diabetes Could Offer Insights into Other Forms of the Disease - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - November 11th, 2020