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Adv Sci (Weinh). 2021 Nov 5:e2102634. doi: 10.1002/advs.202102634. Online ahead of print.


There is an urgent need for developing new immunosuppressive agents due to the toxicity of long-term use of broad immunosuppressive agents after organ transplantation. Comprehensive sample analysis revealed dysregulation of FGL1/LAG-3 and PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoints in allogeneic heart transplantation mice and clinical kidney transplant patients. In order to enhance these two immunosuppressive signal axes, a bioengineering strategy is developed to simultaneously display FGL1/PD-L1 (FP) on the surface of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). Among various cell sources, FP sEVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only enriches FGL1/PD-L1 expression but also maintain the immunomodulatory properties of unmodified MSC sEVs. Next, it is confirmed that FGL1 and PD-L1 on sEVs are specifically bound to their receptors, LAG-3 and PD-1 on target cells. Importantly, FP sEVs significantly inhibite T cell activation and proliferation in vitro and a heart allograft model. Furthermore, FP sEVs encapsulated with low-dose FK506 (FP [emailprotected]) exert stronger effects on inhibiting T cell proliferation, reducing CD8+ T cell density and cytokine production in the spleens and heart grafts, inducing regulatory T cells in lymph nodes, and extending graft survival. Taken together, dual-targeting sEVs have the potential to boost the immune inhibitory signalings in synergy and slow down transplant rejection.

PMID:34738731 | DOI:10.1002/advs.202102634

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Engineered Small Extracellular Vesicles as a FGL1/PD-L1 Dual-Targeting Delivery System for Alleviating Immune Rejection - DocWire News

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